7 国際の最近のブログ記事



Authors: Takano, Y., Ukezono, M., Nakashima, S. F. (中嶋智史), Takahashi, N., & Hironaka, N.

Title: Learning of efficient behaviour in spatial exploration through observation of behaviour of conspecific in laboratory rats.

Journal(書誌情報): Royal Society Open Science,  4, 170121

doi: DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170121

論文URL: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/9/170121

Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that rodent behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of surrounding conspecifics (e.g. emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour). However, little is known about deferred imitation and complex observational learning in rats. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether rats can learn from another rat's experiences. In a maze, observer rats watched the foraging behaviour of other rats (demonstrators) and then foraged in turn. The results showed that demonstrators explored inefficiently, but observers explored more efficiently after observing inefficient exploration by the demonstrators. This observational learning probably involved the acquisition of an efficient strategy through spatial exploration.

著者Contact先の email: ytakano[at]mail.doshisha.ac.jp([at]を@に変更してください。)

Authors: Masataka Nakayama(中山真孝)and Satoru Saito(齊藤智)

Title: Position-element frequency learning is dissociable from Hebb repetition learning

Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 94, June 2017, Pages 235-253

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2016.11.007

論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749596X16302479?via%3Dihub

Position-element association has been extensively investigated as a mechanism for serial order memory and has been widely implemented in models of short-term memory. This study examined whether and how the position-element association is learned as a form of long-term knowledge dissociated from other forms of knowledge such as sequence knowledge acquired in the Hebb list repetition paradigm. Laboratory learning experiments demonstrated that repeated exposure to a specific position-element association facilitated subsequent recall of the position-element association with experimental control of other aspects of to-be-learned statistical structure of the artificial phonotactics. The experiments also demonstrated that the positional frequency learning was more gradual than Hebb list learning, suggesting a dissociation of the two forms of learning. Functional roles of these two forms of learning were discussed.

著者Contact先の email:
masataka.nakayama.mn [at] gmail.com (M. Nakayama), or saito.satoru.2z [at] kyoto-u.ac.jp (S. Saito).

Authors:Takemura, N., Inui, T., and Fukui, T 

Title:A Neural network model for development of reaching and pointing based on the interaction of forward and inverse transformations. 

Journal(書誌情報):Developmental Science 


Pointing is one of the communicative actions that infants acquire during  their first year of life. Based on a hypothesis that early pointing is  triggered by emergent reaching behavior toward objects placed at out-of-reach distances, we proposed a neural network model that acquires reaching without explicit representation of 'targets'. The proposed model controls a two-joint arm in a horizontal plane, and it learns a loop of internal forward and inverse transformations; the former predicts the visual feedback of hand position and the latter generates motor commands from the visual input through random generation  of the motor commands. In the proposed model, the motor output and visual input were represented by broadly tuned neural units. Even though  explicit 'targets' were not presented during learning, the simulation successfully generated reaching toward visually presented objects at within-reach and out-of-reach distances. 

著者Contact先の email:meitz100[at]fork.ocn.ne.jp([at]を@に変更してください。)
Authors:Inui, T., Kumagaya, S and Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.

Title:Neurodevelopmental hypothesis about the etiology of autism spectrum disorders.

Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Human Neuroscience



Previous models or hypotheses of autism spectral disorder (ASD) failed to take into full consideration the chronological and causal developmental trajectory, leading to the emergence of diverse phenotypes  through a complex interaction between individual etiologies and environmental factors. Those phenotypes include persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (criteria A in DSM-5), and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (criteria B in DSM-5). In this article, we proposed a domain-general model that can explain criteria in DSM-5 based on the assumption that the same etiological mechanism would trigger the various phenotypes observed in different individuals with ASD. In the model, we assumed the  following joint causes as the etiology of autism: (1) Hypoplasia of the  pons in the brainstem, occurring immediately following neural tube  closure; and (2) Deficiency in the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) developmental switch during the perinatal period. Microstructural abnormalities of the pons directly affect both the structural and functional development of the brain areas strongly connected to it, especially amygdala. The impairment of GABA switch could not only lead to the deterioration of inhibitory processing in the neural network, but  could also cause abnormal cytoarchitecture. We introduced a perspective  that atypical development in both brain structure and function can give  full explanation of diverse phenotypes and pathogenetic mechanism of  ASD. Finally, we discussed about neural mechanisms underlying the  phenotypic characteristics of ASD that are not described in DSM-5 but  should be considered as important foundation: sleep, global precedence,  categorical perception, intelligence, interoception and motor control.

著者Contact先の email:meitz100[at]fork.ocn.ne.jp([at]を@に変更してください。)

Authors: Toshiki Saito, Rui Nouchi, Hikari Kinjo, Ryuta Kawashima
Title:Gaze Bias in Preference Judgments by Younger and Older Adults
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Abstract:Individuals' gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC) to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults. Participants who had viewed two faces were instructed to choose the one that they liked/disliked or the one that they judged to be more/less similar to their own face. Their eye movements were tracked while they chose. The results show that the gaze bias effect occurred during the remaining time in both age groups irrespective of the decision type. However, no gaze bias effect was observed for the preference judgment during the first dwell time. Our study demonstrated that the gaze bias during the remaining time occurred regardless of decision-making task and age. Further study using diverse participants, such as clinic patients or infants, may help to generalize the gaze bias effect and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the gaze bias.
著者Contact先の email: toshiki.saito[at]med.tohoku.ac.jp([at]を@に変更してください。)

Kobayashi, Y., Matsushita, S., & Morikawa, K. (小林勇輝・松下戦具・森川和則)

Effects of lip color on perceived lightness of human facial skin

i-Perception, 8(4), 2017

doi: 10.1177/2041669517717500

Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by
several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom
been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip
color influences facial skin's perceived lightness. Results of
Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips
darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness
inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness
contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects
are more assimilative than contrastive. Second, the inducing area
(i.e., lips) is much smaller than the influenced area (facial skin).
Experiment 2 showed that the assimilative lightness induction was
caused by holistic processing of faces. This is the first study to
scientifically substantiate the claim of cosmetics manufacturers and
makeup artists that lip colors can alter perceived facial skin color.
Implications for face perception, lightness illusion, and perceptual
effects of cosmetics are discussed.

著者Contact先の email:
y-kobayashi[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (小林勇輝)

Muto, H., Matsushita, S., & Morikawa, K. (武藤拓之・松下戦具・森川和則)

Spatial perspective taking mediated by whole-body motor simulation

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance,
Advance online publication, 2017.

doi: 10.1037/xhp0000464


Humans can envision the world from other people's viewpoints. To
explore the embodied process of such spatial perspective taking, we
examined whether action related to a whole-body movement modulates
performance on spatial perspective-taking tasks. Results showed that
when participants responded by putting their left/right foot or
left/right hand forward, actions congruent with a movement's direction
(clockwise/counterclockwise) reduced RTs relative to incongruent
actions. In contrast, actions irrelevant to a movement (a left/right
hand index-finger response) did not affect performance. Furthermore,
we demonstrated that this response congruency effect cannot be
explained by either spatial stimulus-response compatibility or
sensorimotor interference. These results support the involvement of
simulated whole-body movement in spatial perspective taking. Moreover,
the findings revealed faster foot responses than hand responses during
spatial perspective taking, whereas the opposite result was obtained
during a simple orientation judgment task without spatial perspective
taking. Overall, our findings highlight the important role of motor
simulation in spatial perspective taking.

著者Contact先の email:
h_muto[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (武藤拓之)

(2) 空間的視点取得課題において,手よりも足の反応が速くなること(足の優位性)を報告しています。これらの結果は,空間的視点取得の認知過程が進化的および発達的に身体性に根差している可能性を示唆しています。(武藤)

Call for Papers: Psychology of Diagrams Special Track
Diagrams 2018
10th International Conference on the Theory and Application of
Conference dates: 18th - 22nd June 2018
Location: Edinburgh, UK

Co-located event:
International Conference on Conceptual Structures 2018


Diagrams 2018 is the tenth conference in the biennial series that
started in 2000, which provides a united forum for all areas concerned
with the study of diagrams.

For 2018, we will have a special track devoted to psychological issues
pertaining to diagrams. Special theme topics include any research on
the psychology of diagrams, such as:

- cognitive aspects of diagrams and diagrammatic thinking, including:
+ reasoning with diagrams,
+ comprehension of diagrams,
+ mental imagery and mental animation,
- diagrams and wayfinding,
- diagrams as pedagogical tools,
- human perception and the design of diagrams,
- reasoning with diagrams from a psychological perspective,
- sociocultural interpretations of diagrams,
- spatial structure of diagrams,
- students' use or misuse of diagrams.

If the main research contribution of your submission is considered to
be on the psychology of diagrams you are strongly encouraged to submit
to this track with its dedicated Program Committee.

Submission Categories

Diagrams 2018 will include presentations of refereed Papers, Abstracts,
and Posters, alongside tutorials, workshop sessions, and a graduate

We invite submissions for peer review that focus on any aspect of
diagrams research, as follows:

- Long Papers (16 pages)
- Abstracts (3 pages)
- Short Papers (8 pages)
- Posters (4 pages - this is both a maximum and minimum requirement)

All submissions should include diagrams where appropriate. Submission
of Long Papers, Abstracts, Short Papers, and Posters should be made to
either the main conference track, or one of the special session tracks,
on the philosophy of diagrams and the psychology of diagrams.

Long Papers and Short Papers should report on original research

Submissions to the Abstracts category should report on significant
research contributions, which may have been published elsewhere (such
submissions must clearly cite prior work) or are intended to be
published elsewhere. The contribution should be of a similar level to
that expected of a Long Paper. Submissions to the Abstracts category
will not be included as an archival contribution in the proceedings.
Accepted Abstract submissions will be offered the same presentation
time in the program as Long papers. High quality Abstract submissions
that nonetheless fall short of the standard required for full
acceptance may be accepted for a short presentation. The Abstracts
submission category is not intended for work-in-progress; the Poster
submission category should be used for work-in-progress.

Posters may report on original, yet early stage, research or on
previously published research that is of interest to the Diagrams
community (such submissions must clearly cite prior work).


The Proceedings will be published by Springer in their Lecture Notes
in Computer Science series. The Long papers, Short papers, and Posters
will be indexed by Springer, whilst the Abstracts will not.

Formatting Guidelines

All submissions must follow Springer's LNCS formatting guidelines:


How to Submit

Submissions should be made by the respective deadline via EasyChair:


Program Committee (Psychology of Diagrams Track)

Mireille Betrancourt, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Jean-Michel Boucheix, Université de Bourgogne, France
James E. Corter, Columbia University, USA
Jim Davies, Carleton University, Canada
Mary Hegarty, University of California Santa Barbara, USA
John Kulvicki, Dartmouth College, USA
Andrew T. Stull, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
Takeshi Sugio, Doshisha University, Japan



Authors: Makoto Ichikawa, Yuko Masakura (一川誠,政倉祐子)

Title: Motion capture depends upon the common fate factor among elements.

Journal(書誌情報): Perception

doi: 10.1177/0301006617720123

論文URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0301006617720123

When observers move the head backwards and forwards while fixating on the center of the concentric circles that consist of oblique lines, they see illusory rotation of those circles. If several dots are superimposed on the proximity to the inner concentric circles, observers see the illusory rotation not only for the circles but also for the superimposed dots. This illusory rotation of the dots is based on motion capture. In this study, in order to understand the basis of the motion capture, we examined how motion signal with different directions (rotation, expansion/contraction, and horizontal translation) in terms of motion on a display, as well as illusory motion signal from the oblique components, affects the motion capture. If the stimulus presented rotation with expansion/contraction, or rotation with horizontal translation for the entire stimulus, then observers tended to perceive motion capture for the superimposed dots. However, if the stimulus presented only rotation of the circles, then observers tended to perceive induced motion for the superimposed dots. These results suggest that the existences of the common fate factor for the entire stimulus determine the means of allocating and integrating the motion signal in each element in the stimulus to generate motion capture.

著者Contact先の email: michikawa[at]chiba-u.jp

運動捕捉とは,静止した刺激が,運動する刺激と同じ方向に動いているように見えるという錯視現象である.運動捕捉が生じると,運動刺激とは逆に動いて見える誘導運動とは反対の方向の動きが見えることになる. 今回の論文では,Pinna錯視を用いた実験により,刺激全体にかかわる共通の運動的特性,つまりは「共通運命」があれば運動捕捉が生じるのに対し,そうした共通の運動的特性がなければ誘導運動が生じるのかが決められることが示された.これらの結果は,視覚系が,刺激間の共通運命特性に従って視野内の要素への運動情報の割り当て様式を決めることを示唆している.



Authors: Shigemune Y., Tsukiura T., Nouchi R., Kambara T., Kawashima R.

Title: Neural mechanisms underlying the reward-related enhancement of motivation when remembering episodic memories with high difficulty

Journal(書誌情報): Human Brain Mapping, 38(7), 3428-3443, 2017

doi: 10.1002/hbm.23599

論文URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.23599/full

The motivation to receive rewards enhances episodic memories, and the motivation is modulated by task difficulty. In episodic retrieval, however, functional neuroimaging evidence regarding the motivation that mediates interactions between reward and task difficulty is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated this issue. During encoding performed without fMRI, participants encoded Japanese words using either deep or shallow strategies, which led to variation in difficulty level during subsequent retrieval. During retrieval with fMRI, participants recognized the target words in either high or low monetary reward conditions. In the behavioral results, a reward-related enhancement of memory was found only when the memory retrieval was difficult, and the rewarding effect on subjective motivation was greater in the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. The fMRI data showed that reward-related increases in the activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), medial temporal lobe (MTL), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) were greater during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. Furthermore, reward-related enhancement of functional connectivity between the SN/VTA and MTL and between the SN/VTA and dmPFC during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty was significantly correlated with reward-related increases of retrieval accuracy and subjective motivation. The reward-related enhancement of episodic retrieval and retrieval-related motivation could be most effective when the level of retrieval difficulty is optimized. Such reward-related enhancement of memory and motivation could be modulated by a network including the reward-related SN/VTA, motivation-related dmPFC, and memory-related MTL.

著者Contact先の email: gemune{at}gmail.com, tsukiura.takashi.6c{at}kyoto-u.ac.jp

Authors: Yamawaki R., Nakamura K., Aso T., Shigemune Y., Fukuyama H., Tsukiura T.

Title: Remembering my friends: Medial prefrontal and hippocampal contributions to the self-reference effect on face memories in a social context

Journal(書誌情報): Human Brain Mapping, 38(8), 4256-4269, 2017

doi: 10.1002/hbm.23662

論文URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.23662/full

Memories associated with the self are remembered more accurately than those associated with others. The memory enhancement related to the self is known as the self-reference effect (SRE). However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the SRE in a social context modulated by social relationships. In the present fMRI study, we investigated encoding-related activation of face memories encoded with the self-referential process in a social context that was manipulated by imagining a person-to-person relationship. Healthy young adults participated in the present study. During encoding, participants encoded unfamiliar target faces by imagining a future friendship with themselves (Self), their friends (Friend), or strangers (Other). During retrieval, participants were presented with target and distracter faces one by one, and they judged whether each face had been previously learned. In the behavioral results, target faces encoded in the Self condition were remembered more accurately than those encoded in the Other condition. fMRI results demonstrated that encoding-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was significantly greater in the Self condition than in the Friend or Other conditions. In addition, the generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI) analysis showed that functional connectivity between activation in the hippocampus and the cortical midline structures (CMSs), including the mPFC and precuneus, was significant in the Self but not in the Other condition. These findings suggest that the SRE in a social context could be involved in the interaction between the CMS regions, which are related to the self-referential process, and the hippocampus related to the memory process.

著者Contact先の email: yamawaki{at}kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp, tsukiura.takashi.6c{at}kyoto-u.ac.jp