7 国際: 2015年1月アーカイブ
Hajimu Hayashi and Yuki Shiomi
Do children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion?
International Journal of Behavioral Development , 39(1), 1-8.
doi: DOI: 10.1177/0165025414548777
This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion
depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders,
80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative
feelings because of the behavior of the other character. In the prosocial context, children were
instructed that the protagonist wished to spare the other character's feelings. In contrast, in the
real-emotion context, children were told that the protagonist was fed up with the other character's
behavior. Participants were asked to imagine what the protagonists would say. Adults selected
utterances with positive or neutral emotion in the prosocial context but chose utterances with
negative emotion in the real-emotion context, whereas first-graders selected utterances with
negative emotion in both contexts. In the prosocial context, the proportion of utterances with
negative emotion decreased from first-graders to adults, whereas in the real-emotion context the
proportion was U-shaped, decreasing from first- to third-graders and increasing from fifth-graders
to adults. Further, performance on both contexts was associated with second-order false beliefs as
well as second-order intention understanding. These results indicate that children begin to
understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon context after 8 to 9
years. This ability is also related to second-order theory of mind.
Tanabe-Ishibashi, A., Ikeda, T.,Osaka, N.
Title: Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces
Frontiers in Psychology, 5,article400, 1-8、2014
Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful(scene) or meaningless(scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1)disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2)weak facilitation of face recognition by the representation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.
Matsuyoshi, D., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.
Title:Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload
Frontiers in Psychology, 5,article384,1-7,2014
Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory(VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decrease sin VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored.
Otsuka, Y. Osaka, N.
High-performers use the phonological loop less to process mental arithmetic during working memory tasks
Quarterly Journal of Experimental
Psychology 68, 2015 (online version)
This study investigated the effects of three working memory components--the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad--on performance differences in complex mental arithmetic between individuals. Using the dual-task method, we examined how performance during two-digit
addition was affected by load on the central executive (random tapping condition), phonological loop (articulatory suppression condition), and visuospatial sketchpad (spatial tapping condition) compared to that under no load (control condition) in high- and low-performers of complex mental arithmetic in Experiment 1. Low-performers showed an increase in errors under the random tapping and articulatory suppression conditions, whereas high-performers showed an increase of errors only under the random tapping condition. In Experiment 2, we conducted similar experiments on only
the high-performers but used a shorter presentation time of each number. We found the same pattern for performing complex mental arithmetic as seen in Experiment 1. These results indicate that high-performers might reduce their dependence on the phonological loop, because the central executive enables them to choose a strategy in which they use less working memory capacity.
Author: Yohtaro Takano
Title: Mirror reversal of slanted objects: A psycho-optic explanation.
Journal(書誌情報）: Philosophical Psychology, 2015, 28(2), 240-259.
著者の email: yohtaro.takano[at]gmail.com
鏡映反転の理由については、普通は「鏡の中では、上下は反対にならないのに、左右が反対になるのは何故か？」と問われますが、実際には、「上下が反対に見えて、左右が反対に見えない」、「上下も左右も反対に見える」、「どちらも反対に見えない」など、様々な鏡像が存在します。著者は、それら全ての場合を統一的に説明する「多重プロセス理論」を提案し（Takano, 1998）、実験によってその妥当性を立証しました（Takano & Tanaka, 2007）。
この理論は、対象が鏡と向かい合っている（対象の左右軸が鏡面と平行な）場合と、横向きになっている（左右軸が鏡面と垂直な）場合とを別々の原理で説明していました。この点に着目した研究者から、「対象が鏡と斜めになっている場合が説明できていない」という批判がなされました（Corballis, 2000; Tabata & Okuda, 2000）。
Philosophical Psychology という雑誌は、日本の認知心理学者にはあまり馴染みがないと思いますが、Ulric Neisser が日常記憶研究の必要性を訴える論文を最初に掲載した雑誌です。
No agreed-upon account of mirror reversal is currently available although it has been discussed for more than two thousand years since Plato. Mirror reversal usually refers to recognized left-right reversal of a mirror image. Depending on the nature and layout of a reflected object, however, top-bottom reversal may be recognized instead of left-right reversal; no reversal at all may be recognized; and the presence or absence of reversal may not be decidable. Takano (1998) proposed a psycho-optic theory to explain all these cases of mirror image recognition in a consistent manner. The proposed theory assumes different causes of mirror reversal depending on whether an object's left-right axis is parallel or perpendicular to a mirror's surface. This theory was later criticized in that it provided no explanation when the left-right axis is neither parallel nor perpendicular but at an intermediate angle between 0 and 90 degrees with a mirror. This article completes the theory by presenting psycho-optic analyses to show that mirror reversal at an intermediate angle can be explained within the same basic framework of the theory.