7 国際: 2014年7月アーカイブ
Authors: Koshino, H., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M.,Osaka, N. Title: Coactivation of the default mode network regions and working memory network regions during task preparation Journal: Scientific Reports,4,5954, 2014 doi: Doi:10.1038/srep05954 論文URL: http://www.nature.com/srep/index.html Abstract The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between theDMNand the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., Osaka, N. Title: Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study Journal: Scientific Reports,4,582, 2014 doi: Doi:10.1038/srep05828 論文URL: http://www.nature.com/srep/index.html Abstract: Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Akio Honda, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong, Tsuneyuki Abe
Japanese university students' attitudes toward the Fukushima nuclear disaster
Journal of Environmental Psychology
This study investigated Japanese university students' attitudes about the Fukushima nuclear accident and the relations between their attitudes and their opinions about post-disaster reconstruction policies. Gender and geographical differences were also examined. Attitude components were identified, including nuclear power plant efficiency, trust in institutions, and fear of radioactive contamination. Results revealed that men reported higher perceived nuclear power plant efficiency than women did, whereas women showed slightly higher fear of radioactive contamination than men did. Students in Miyagi had higher levels of trust in institutions than students in Tokyo did. Controlling for the effects of gender and geographical differences, fear of radioactive contamination was revealed as a predictor of opinions about post-disaster policies. In contrast, the cognitive components of attitudes did not predict the opinions.