7 国際: 2014年2月アーカイブ
Authors: Sekiguchi T., Nonaka S.（関口貴裕・野中沙織） Title: The long-term effect of perspective change on the emotional intensity
of autobiographical memories. Journal: Cognition & Emotion, 28(2), 375-383 doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.825233 論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2013.825233#.UvR-ZvWChaQ Abstract: Autobiographical memories can be recalled from either a field (first-person) or an observer (third-person) perspective. Previous studies have reported that field-to-observer perspective change reduced the emotional intensity of recalled events. In the present study, we examined whether this effect has a long duration by employing follow-up measurements. The participants were asked to recall the same events repeatedly across three sessions (S1, S2, and S3): S2 was conducted about three days after S1, and S3 was conducted about four weeks after S2. The results showed a reduction in the emotional intensity of the recalled events when the perspective was changed from field to observer at S2. More importantly, this reduction in emotional intensity persisted until S3. These effects were not observed under observer-to-field perspective change at S2. These results suggest that observer perspective taking can cause plastic change in the autobiographical memory system.
著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント： 自伝的記憶をどのような視点（一人称視点 vs 三人称視点）で想起するかが，想起時に感じる 感情の強度に長期的な影響を与えることを示した研究です。一人称視点で想起された出来事を 三人称視点で想起し直すと想起時の感情強度が弱くなることが知られていますが（e.g., Berntsen & Rubin, 2006），本研究では，こうした感情強度に対する三人称視点想起の影響が同じ出来事を 四週間後に想起した場合でも見られること，また，想起視点それ自体にも影響しており三人称 視点想起の確率を高めることを見いだしました。この結果は，三人称視点の想起が貯蔵された 出来事の記憶を変化させることを示唆しています。
Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K.., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.
Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal
cortex under an ego-blocking frustration
Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation:
some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive).
Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive
and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural
structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which
blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem.
In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation
in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer
emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed
greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful
control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking
condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual
differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.
Medial prefrontal cortex dissociation between self and others in a referential task:
An fMRI study based on word traits.
Journal of Physiology,107 (2013) 517-525
A number of recent neuroimaging studies using self referential tasks have investigated
whether self referential processing depends on a unique neural basis that operates
specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex. However, these studies have provided
contradictory results despite the use of similar methodologies. We hypothesized that
these discrepancies are partially related to the task-difficulty that presents dissociations
reaction times in the self- and other-referential tasks. We therefore measured brain
activity during self and other referential tasks to determine if such activity can be
dissociated according to the reaction times (fast versus slow) for the trait words.
Activation differed across self and other only in the slow word condition. The self
referential condition with slow reaction time produced greater activation
in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, whereas the other referential condition with slow
reaction time produced activation of the middle temporal gyrus. Results suggested
that the task-difficulty might affect whether or not brain activities within MPFC would
be dissociated between self- and other-referential processing.