7 国際: 2014年4月アーカイブ
Authors: Suegami, T., Aminihasjibashi, S., and Laeng, B. Title: Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric
lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task. Journal(書誌情報）: Cognitive Processing, 15(2), 217-226 doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8 Abstract: The present study aimed to replicate category effects on colour perception and their lateralisation to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). Previous evidence for lateralisation of colour category effects has been obtained with tasks where a differently coloured target was searched within a display and participants reported the lateral location of the target. However, a left/right spatial judgment may yield LH-laterality effects per se. Thus, we employed an identification task that does not require a spatial judgment and used the same colour set that previously revealed LH-lateralised category effects. The identification task was better performed with between-category colours than with within-category task both in terms of accuracy and latency, but such category effects were bilateral or RH-lateralised, and no evidence was found for LH-laterality effects. The accuracy scores, moreover, indicated that the category effects derived from low sensitivities for within-blue !
colours and did not reflect the effects of categorical structures on colour perception. Furthermore, the classic "category effects" were observed in participants' response biases, instead of sensitivities. The present results argue against both the LH-lateralised category effects on colour perception and the existence of colour category effects per se. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Masataka Nakayama （中山真孝）and Satoru Saito （齊藤智） Title: Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position
effects in repeated single-word production Journal(書誌情報）:Cognition 131(3), 415-430. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.03.002 論文URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027714000419 Abstract: An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the tem- poral distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically dem- onstrated separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly. This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However, such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word. The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial order control. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com (M. Nakayama), firstname.lastname@example.org (S. Saito).
Authors: Takeo Isarida, Tetsuya Sakai, Takayuki
Miho Koga, Yu Katayama, & Toshiko K. Isarida
effects in free recall after a short retention interval:
A new methodology for controlling adaptation
Journal(書誌情報）: Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 421-433.
Abstract: The present study investigated
context effects of incidental odors in
free recall after a short retention-interval (5 min). With a short retention-interval,
the results are not confounded by extraneous odors, or encounters with
the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention-interval.
A short study-time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by
adaptation to the odor, and a long study-time condition (8 s per item) were used.
Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a
dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval,
and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning
paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results.
In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words
presented one-by-one and received a free-recall test. Two pairs of odors, and
a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics, were selected
from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and
during the test the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within
the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery
from adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item
condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery from adaptation
method, context effects were found for both the 8-s/item and the 4-s/item conditions.
The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time.
There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.
著者Contact先の email: email@example.com