7 国際: 2013年7月アーカイブ

Authors: Sachio Otsuka, Megumi Nishiyama, Fumitaka Nakahara, & Jun
Kawaguchi(大塚幸生・西山めぐみ・中原史隆・川口 潤)
Title: Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic
information of objects
Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, and Cognition, 39(1), 196-207, 2013.
doi: 10.1037/a0028645
論文URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xlm/39/1/196.pdf
Abstract: Five experiments examined what is learned based on the
perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical
learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a
sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects.
In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically
related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or
second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In
Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment
1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The
results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was
greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC
and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance
of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in
which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we
showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL
with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results
of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These
results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and
semantic information of objects in VSL.
著者Contact先の email: otsuka.sachio.65w@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Authors: Shin-ichi ASakawa
Title: Re-Evaluation of Attractor Neural Network Model to Explain Double
Dissociation in Semantic Memory Disorder
Journal(書誌情報): Psychology, ISSN Print: 2152-7180, ISSN Online:
doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A053
論文URL: http://www.Scirp.org/journal/psych

Structure of semantic memory was investigated in the way of neural
network simulations in detail. In the literature, it is well-known that
brain damaged patients often showed category specific disorder in
various cognitive neuropsychological tasks like picture naming,
categorisation, identification tasks and so on. In order to describe
semantic memory disorder of brain damaged patients, the attractor neural
network model originally proposed Hinton and Shallice (1991) was
employed and was tried to re-evaluate the model performance. Especially,
in order to answer the question about organization of semantic memory,
how our semantic memories are organized, computer simulations were
conducted. After the model learned data set (Tyler, Moss,
Durrant-Peatfield, & Levy, 2000), units in hidden and cleanup layers
were removed and observed its performances. The results showed category
specificity. This model could also explain the double dissociation
phenomena. In spite of the simplicity of its architecture, the attractor
neural network might be considered to mimic human behavior in the
meaning of semantic memory organization and its disorder. Although this
model could explain various phenomenon in cognitive neuropsychology, it
might become obvious that this model had one limitation to explain human
behavior. As far as investigation in this study, asymmetry in category
specificity between animate and inanimate objects might not be explained
on this model without any additional assumptions. Therefore, further
studies must be required to improve our understanding for semantic
memory organisation.
著者Contact先の email: asakawa@ieee.rog

Author: Yohtaro Takano (University of Tokyo)

Title: Japanese Culture Explored Through Experimental Design

  A. Kurylo (Ed.)
  Inter/Cultural Communication.
  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013, pp. 405-412.

ISBN: 978-1-4129-8693-9

 [この論文は、本の1章なので Abstract がありません。概要を日本語で記し
差異は全く認められないことがわかりました(Takano & Osaka, 1999)。

著者Contact先の email: takano@L.u-tokyo.ac.jp

 この論文は、Takano & Sogon (2008) を教科書向けに短縮し、書き直したもの
です。Takano & Sogon (2008) は、高野(2008)でも紹介しました。この論文の
一節は、パーソナリティ心理学の教科書 (Funder, 2012) に引用されています。

Takano, Y. & Osaka, E. (1999). An unsupported common view: Comparing
Japan and the U.S. on individualism/collectivism.  Asian Journal of
Social Psychology, 2, 311-341.

高野陽太郎 (2008). 『「集団主義」という錯覚』 新曜社

Takano, Y. & Sogon, S. (2008). Are Japanese more collectivistic than
Americans?: Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group
effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 237-250.

Funder, D. C. (2012). The Personality Puzzle (6th ed). Norton.
Authors: Tadamasa Narimoto, naomi Matsuura, Tomohiro Takezawa, Yoshinori
Mitsuhashi, and Michio Hiratani

Title: Spatial short-term memory in children with visuospatial learning
disabilities: Impairment in encoding spatial configuration (2013) Vol.
174 (1), 73-87

Journal: Journal of Genetic Psychology
(5-Year Impact Factor: 1.098)
(Aims & scope: The Journal of Genetic Psychology is devoted to research
and theory in developmental psychology across the life span. We accept
submissions in the areas of educational and cross-cultural comparative
psychology if they are developmental in nature. The major thrust of the
journal is empirical research and the exposition and criticism of theory

doi: 10.1080/00221325.2011.641040

論文URL:  http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/vgnt20/174/1

The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory
exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a
problem in the   encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal
learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them
to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random
positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item
was changed or all items including the target were in the same position.
The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding
and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children
with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children
without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with
the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have
difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and
that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-
term memory.

著者Contact先のemail: tanarimo@ed.tokyo-fukushi.ac.jp
Tatsushi Fukaya

Explanation generation, not explanation expectancy, improves
metacomprehension accuracy

Metacognition and Learning
2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1-18



The ability to monitor the status of one's own understanding is
important to accomplish academic tasks proficiently. Previous studies
have shown that comprehension monitoring (metacomprehension accuracy)
is generally poor, but improves when readers engage in activities that
access valid cues reflecting their situation model (activities such as
concept mapping or self-explaining). However, the question still
remains as to which process, encoding or retrieving, causes the
improvement of metacomprehension accuracy, and the findings of
previous research on this matter have been inconsistent. This study
examined whether college students' metacomprehension accuracy improves
when they expect, at the time of reading, that they will explain the
content later (active encoding) or when they actually generate an
explanation (encoding plus active retrieving). In the experiments,
college students read five texts. During reading, some students
expected that they would generate explanations but did not actually
generate them. In contrast, some students actually generated an
explanation of the text after reading. All students then rated their
comprehension of each text. Finally, they completed tests on the
materials. Results of both studies revealed that metacomprehension
accuracy, operationalized as the association between comprehension
ratings and test performance, was greater for the group that actually
generated explanations than for the expectancy or control groups.

著者Contact先の email:

Authors: Motoyasu Honma, Nobutaka Endo, Yoshihisa Osada, Yoshiharu Kim,
Kenichi Kuriyama
Title: Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake
Journal(書誌情報): Scientific Reports
doi: 10.1038/srep00749
Abstract: Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of
aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large
area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We
conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and
psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in
individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were
rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the
aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation.
Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have
arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual
vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to
aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on
equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute
to risk management of psychological and physical health after major
earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical
approach to disaster care after such events.
著者Contact先の email: mhonma@ncnp.go.jp

日本語要約: 2011年3月11日に発生した東北沖地震の約4カ月後に,余震を多く経

日本語によるコメント: 身体の平衡維持(バランス)機能は,主に内耳の前庭器
Author: Motoyasu Honma
Title: Hyper-volume of eye-contact perception and social anxiety traits
Journal(書誌情報): Consciousness and Cognition
doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.12.002.
論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381001200236X
Abstract: Eye-contact facilitates effective interpersonal exchange
during social interactions, but can be a considerable source of anxiety
for individuals with social phobia. However, the relationship between
the fundamental spatial range of eye-contact perception and psychiatric
traits is, to date, unknown. In this study, I analyzed the eye-contact
spatial response bias and the associated pupil response, and how they
relate to traits of social interaction disorders. In a face-to-face
situation, 21 pairs of subjects were randomly assigned to be either
viewers or perceivers. The viewer was instructed to gaze either at the
perceiver's eyes, or at a predetermined point, and the perceiver was
asked to indicate whether eye-contact had been established or not. I
found that the perceptual volume is much larger than the actual volume
of eye-contact, and that the subjective judgment of eye-contact elicited
greater pupil dilation in the perceiver. Furthermore, the relationship
between behavioral performance and social anxiety traits was identified.
These findings provide new indications that internal traits related to
lower social anxiety are potentially related to a restriction of spatial
response bias for eye-contact.
著者Contact先の email: mhonma@ncnp.go.jp

日本語要約: 対面する二者におけるアイコンタクト(視線一致)の知覚体積およ

日本語によるコメント: ながらく眼球運動測定に関わってきたのですが,高次な
Authors: ISARIDA Takeo, ISARIDA Toshiko K., & SAKAI Tetsuya
Title: Effects of study time and meaningfulness on environmental
Journal: Memory & Cognition, Vol 40, No. 8, 1225-1235, 2012.
doi: 10.3758/s13421-012-0234-0
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/journal/13421/40/8/page/1
Abstract: In two experiments, we examined whether the
size of place-context-dependent recognition decreased with
study time and with the meaningfulness of the to-beremembered
materials. A group of 80 undergraduates intentionally
studied a list of words in a short (1.5 s per item) or a
long (4.0 s per item) study-time condition (Exp. 1). Another
40 undergraduates studied lists consisting of words and
nonwords in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). After
a short retention interval, recognition for the targets was
tested in the same or in a different context. Context was
manipulated by means of the combination of place, subsidiary
task, and experimenter. Significant context-dependent
recognition discrimination was found for words in the shortstudy-
time condition (Exp. 1), but not in the long-study-time
condition (Exps. 1 and 2). Significant effects were found as
well for nonwords, even in the long-study-time condition
(Exp. 2). These results are explained well by an outshining
account: that is, by principles of outshining and encoding
著者Contact先の email: isarida@inf.shizuoka.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント 場所を操作した環境的文脈依存効果は,再生ではかなり
Authors: Iwabuchi Toshiki, Inui Toshio, Ogawa Kenji
Title: A functional MRI study of a picture-sentence verification task:
evidence of attention shift to the grammatical subject
Journal(書誌情報): Neuroreport, 24(6):298-302.
doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32835f8826
Abstract: Mapping the meaning of a sentence onto visual entities is a
fundamental process of daily language use, but it is unclear how
attention in the visual context influences sentence comprehension.
Aiming to examine this problem, we conducted a picture-sentence matching
experiment with scanning using functional MRI. In the experiment, a
moving picture describing an event with two colored objects was
presented on a screen. A visual cue was flashed at the position of an
object's appearance just before the event presentation, and participants
were instructed to pay attention to the visually cued object in the
picture. They were then required to read a simple Japanese sentence and
to verify whether it correctly described the previous event. To examine
the effects of visual cueing, we defined two conditions on the basis of
the relationship between the visually cued object in an event and the
grammatical subject of the subsequent sentence. When comparing the
conditions in which the visually cued object was incongruent with the
grammatical subject to the congruent conditions, participants showed a
lower hit rate, and the right frontal eye field, which is known to be
the region related to attention shift, was more activated. These
findings suggest that the attention was initially allocated to an object
encoded as the grammatical subject in the process of linking the content
of a sentence with a visual event. Therefore, the attention was shifted
from the cued object to the other object under the conditions discussed
著者Contact先の email: iwabuchi@cog.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T.
Title: How vision affects kinematic properties of pantomimed prehension
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00044
When performing the reach-to-grasp movement, fingers open wider than the
size of a target object and then stop opening. The recorded peak grip
aperture (PGA) is significantly larger when this action is performed
without vision during the movement than with vision, presumably due to
an error margin that is retained in order to avoid collision with the
object. People can also pretend this action based on an internal target
representation (i.e., pantomimed prehension), and previous studies have
shown that kinematic differences exist between natural and pantomimed
prehension. These differences are regarded as a reflection of variations
in information processing in the brain through the dorsal and ventral
streams. Pantomimed action is thought to be mediated by the ventral
stream. This implies that visual information during the movement, which
is essential to the dorsal stream, has little effect on the kinematic
properties of pantomimed prehension. We investigated whether an online
  view of the external world affects pantomimed grasping, and more
specifically, whether the dorsal stream is involved in its execution.
Participants gazed at a target object and were then subjected to a 3-s
visual occlusion, during which time the experimenter removed the object.
The participants were then required to pretend to make a reach-to-grasp
action toward the location where the object had been presented. Two
visual conditions (full vision and no vision) were imposed during the
pantomimed action by manipulating shutter goggles. The PGA showed
significant differences between the two visual conditions, whereas no
significant difference was noted for terminal grip aperture, which was
recorded at the movement end. This suggests the involvement of the
dorsal stream in pantomimed action and implies that pantomimed
prehension is a good probe for revealing the mechanism of interaction
between the ventral and dorsal streams, which is also linked to embodied
著者Contact先の email: takao.fukui@inserm.fr
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T.
Title: Utilization of visual feedback of the hand according to target
view availability for online control of prehension movements
Journal(書誌情報): Human Movement Science
doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2013.03.004
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of online vision of a
target object and the participant's moving hand in the early phase of
reach-to-grasp movements. We designed an experiment that separately
manipulated the visibility of a moving hand and the target object by
using two liquid crystal shutter plates placed in the same horizontal
plane (25 cm above the experimental table). When the view of the target
was available immediately after movement onset, the effect of the view
of the hand in the early phase of movement was very limited. The effect
of the view of the hand emerged when the view of the target in the early
phase of movement was not available. This was even the case for the
condition where the temporal range of non-availability of the view of
the target after movement initiation was 150 ms. Therefore, online
vision (both the view of the target and of the hand) for controlling
grasping was utilized in a flexible fashion that depended on the visual e
著者Contact先の email: takao.fukui@inserm.fr
Ogawa K, Imamizu H.
Human sensorimotor cortex represents conflicting visuomotor mappings.
The Journal of Neuroscience
Behavioral studies have shown that humans can adapt to conflicting
sensorimotor mappings that cause interference after intensive
training. While previous research works indicate the involvement of
distinct brain regions for different types of motor learning (e.g.,
kinematics vs dynamics), the neural mechanisms underlying joint
adaptation to conflicting mappings within the same type of
perturbation (e.g., different angles of visuomotor rotation) remain
unclear. To reveal the neural substrates that represent multiple
sensorimotor mappings, we examined whether different mappings could be
classified with multivoxel activity patterns of functional magnetic
resonance imaging data. Participants simultaneously adapted to
opposite rotational perturbations (+90° and - 90°) during visuomotor
tracking. To dissociate differences in movement kinematics with
rotation types, we used two distinct patterns of target motion and
tested generalization of the classifier between different combinations
of rotation and motion types. Results showed that the rotation types
were classified significantly above chance using activities in the
primary sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, despite
no significant difference in averaged signal amplitudes within the
region. In contrast, low-level sensorimotor components, including
tracking error and movement speed, were best classified using
activities of the early visual cortex. Our results reveal that the
sensorimotor cortex represents different visuomotor mappings, which
permits joint learning and switching between conflicting sensorimotor
著者Contact先の email: k.ogawa@atr.jp