7 国際: 2017年1月アーカイブ



Authors: Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y.

Title: The Effects of Limiting Instructions about Emotional Evidence Depend on Need for Cognition

Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

Abstract:Although limiting instructions are provided for specific evidence that may have a negative impact on jurors' decision-making, there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of the instructions. The individual predisposition towards the enjoyment of cognitive activity is called need for cognition (NFC), and individuals high in NFC tend to seek out and engage in cognitive activity spontaneously. The present study examined the influence of NFC and limiting instructions about emotional evidence on mock jurors' legal decision-making. The results showed that mock jurors who were lower in NFC were more likely to render a guilty decision than those higher in NFC, and that the tendency was more salient when the limiting instructions were presented compared with when they were not presented. Similar results were found in regard to sentencing decisions and arousal of anger. A partial mediation effect of anger was found between NFC and verdict decisions. The influence of NFC on the limiting instructions and legal decision-making as well as the effect of anger on the decision is discussed in relation to these results.

著者Contact: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com(松尾加代); yitoh[at]flet.keio.ac.jp(伊東裕司)



 本夏は8月25日(金)-27日(日)と京都女子大学において、音楽の科学的研究をテーマとする学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music(第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6)を開催いたします。








e-mail: apscom2017[at]jsmpc.org([at]を@に変更してください)

Authors: Hiroko Nakamura, Jun Kawaguchi

Title: People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions

Journal(書誌情報): PloS one, 11(12), e0169166

doi: journal.pone.0169166

Abstract: Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications) regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both) of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.

著者Contact先の email: nkmr[at]asu.aasa.ac.jp ([at]を@に置き換えてください)
Authors: Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi

Title: Associations among executive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties in older adults

Journal(書誌情報): Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep40107

Abstract: Aging is associated with deterioration in a number of cognitive functions. Previous reports have demonstrated the beneficial effect of physical fitness on cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). The graph theoretical approach models the brain as a complex network represented graphically as nodes and edges. We analyzed several measures of EF, an index of physical fitness, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy older volunteers to elucidate the associations among EF, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties. The topological neural properties were significantly related to the level of EF and/or physical fitness. Global efficiency, which represents how well the whole brain is integrated, was positively related, whereas local efficiency, which represents how well the brain is functionally segregated, was negatively related, to the level of EF and fitness. The associations among EF,
 physical fitness and topological resting-state functional network property appear related to compensation and dedifferentiation in older age. A mediation analysis showed that high-fit older adults gain higher global efficiency of the brain at the expense of lower local efficiency. The results suggest that physical fitness may be beneficial in maintaining EF in healthy aging by enhancing the efficiency of the global brain network.

著者Contact先の email: toshikazukawagoe[at]gmail.com([at]を@に置き換えてください)

Authors: Kondo, H.M., van Loon, A.M., Kawahara, J.-I., & Moore, B.C.J.

Title: Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview

Journal (書誌情報): Phil Trans R Soc B, 372, 20160099

doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0099

論文URL: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1714/20160099

Abstract: We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis.

著者Contact先のemail: kondo.hirohito[at]lab.ntt.co.jp([at]を@に置き換えてください)



英国王立協会から招待を受け、学術雑誌 Phil Trans R Soc B にて上記の特集号を企画、編纂して参りました。このたび、その特集号の出版が決定し、雑誌の年頭を飾る運びとなりましたのでご案内申し上げます。