7 国際の最近のブログ記事

Hidehito Honda
Yuichi Washida
Akihito Sudo
Yuichiro Wajima
Keigo Awata
Kazuhiro Ueda

The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts

Technological Forecasting and Social Change



We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.

著者Contact先の email:
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp


Authors: Kuribayashi, R., & Nittono, H.

Title: High-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness (聞こえない高周波成分を含むハイレゾ音源を聞くと意識には上らないがリラックスした注意状態が生じる)

Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 8:93

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00093


Abstract: High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5-13 Hz) and low-beta (13-20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital sound sources in which such components are artificially cut off, suggesting that high-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness.

著者Contact先の email: nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 耳には聞こえない高周波成分(> 20 kHz)を残したディジタル音源(ハイレゾ)と,それをカットした同じ音源は,意識的には区別できません。しかし,前者を聴取すると脳波のアルファ帯域パワーが増大します。その心理学的意義を調べるために,今回の実験では,2つの音源間で視覚ヴィジランス課題の成績を比較しました。その結果,高周波成分を残した音源を聴くと,アルファ帯域パワーが増えるが,行動成績は低下しないこと,事象関連電位のP3(P300)成分の振幅が聴取期間の後半で増加することが分かりました。これらの知見は,高周波帯域を残した音源は,眠気を誘うのではなく,注意状態を高める効果があることを示唆しています。

Authors: Tagai, K., Shimakura, H., Isobe, H., & Nittono, H.

Title: The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials (顔処理におけるライトメークの優位性:事象関連電位による証拠)

Journal(書誌情報): PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0172489

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172489


Abstract: The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

著者Contact先の email: keiko.tagai[at]to.shiseido.co.jp (互 恵子),
nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 前報(Frontiers in Psychology, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00226)において,ナチュラルなライトメークは,濃いヘビーメークよりも再認成績がよいことを報告しました。今回は,ライトメークを見た直後の脳電位を測定することで,化粧顔の処理について検討しました。ライトメークは,素顔やヘビーメークに比べて,N170成分(刺激提示後120-170 ms)の振幅が小さくなりました。それ以前のP1成分(80-110 ms)の振幅には差が認められませんでした。この知見は,濃すぎないナチュラルなメークを行うことにより,顔を見たときの処理が容易になることを示しています。印象評価では、ナチュラルメークの方がヘビーメークよりも魅力的と評価されていました。

Authors: Soyogu Matsushita & Shingo Nomura
Title: The Asymmetrical Influence of Timing Asynchrony of Bass Guitar and Drum Sounds on Groove
Journal(書誌情報):Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, December 2016; pp. 123-131.
Abstract: Groove is a pleasant feeling that compels people to move their bodies along with music. In the past, there was some consensus among both musicians and researchers that the main factor in inducing this feeling is onset asynchrony of sounds. However, recent studies have asserted that no-asynchrony is the condition that will obtain the highest groove. The current study examined whether no-asynchrony exclusively elicits the highest groove. In Experiment 1, we measured the groove increment of a backbeat drum pattern as a function of the asynchronies between bass guitar and hi-hat cymbal sounds. Upon evaluation, the scores of no conditions exceeded those of the synchronous condition. However, the condition with slight bass guitar precedence over the hi-hat achieved an approximately equal score to the condition with complete synchrony, and that score was higher than the ones achieved with bass delay. In Experiment 2, we measured the participants' sensitivities to timing
discrimination. The results confirmed that the amount of bass precedence in Experiment 1 was perceptible to the listeners. These findings suggest that complete synchronization is not always the best condition to achieve groove and that listeners prefer perceivable asynchronies in some cases.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp [at]を@に変換してください
日本語によるコメント: 本研究は,「音楽のグルーヴ感(音楽に合わせて体を動かしたくなる感覚)を最大にするためには複数楽器間の発音タイミングが一致している方が良いのか,ややズレている方が良いのか」,という議論に対して,心理物理学的手法でアプローチしました。結論は,「ズレはそれだけでグルーヴを明確に増幅するものではなさそうだが,ズレている条件が好ましい場合もある」,というやや折衷的なものになりました。(松下)
APSCOM 6 一般発表申込の締切延長についてのご案内

学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences
of Music(第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6)を開催いたします。



e-mail: apscom2017[at]jsmpc.org [at]を@に変えて下さい

Authors: Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Title: Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding
Journal(書誌情報): Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17: 143-157, 2017.
doi: 10.3758/s13415-016-0468-6
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-016-0468-6
Abstract: Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.
著者Contact先の email: tsukiura.takashi.6c[at]kyoto-u.ac.jp(月浦 崇)  [at]を@に置き換えてください



Authors: Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y.

Title: The Effects of Limiting Instructions about Emotional Evidence Depend on Need for Cognition

Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

Abstract:Although limiting instructions are provided for specific evidence that may have a negative impact on jurors' decision-making, there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of the instructions. The individual predisposition towards the enjoyment of cognitive activity is called need for cognition (NFC), and individuals high in NFC tend to seek out and engage in cognitive activity spontaneously. The present study examined the influence of NFC and limiting instructions about emotional evidence on mock jurors' legal decision-making. The results showed that mock jurors who were lower in NFC were more likely to render a guilty decision than those higher in NFC, and that the tendency was more salient when the limiting instructions were presented compared with when they were not presented. Similar results were found in regard to sentencing decisions and arousal of anger. A partial mediation effect of anger was found between NFC and verdict decisions. The influence of NFC on the limiting instructions and legal decision-making as well as the effect of anger on the decision is discussed in relation to these results.

著者Contact: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com(松尾加代); yitoh[at]flet.keio.ac.jp(伊東裕司)



 本夏は8月25日(金)-27日(日)と京都女子大学において、音楽の科学的研究をテーマとする学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music(第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6)を開催いたします。








e-mail: apscom2017[at]jsmpc.org([at]を@に変更してください)

Authors: Hiroko Nakamura, Jun Kawaguchi

Title: People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions

Journal(書誌情報): PloS one, 11(12), e0169166

doi: journal.pone.0169166

Abstract: Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications) regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both) of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.

著者Contact先の email: nkmr[at]asu.aasa.ac.jp ([at]を@に置き換えてください)
Authors: Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi

Title: Associations among executive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties in older adults

Journal(書誌情報): Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep40107

Abstract: Aging is associated with deterioration in a number of cognitive functions. Previous reports have demonstrated the beneficial effect of physical fitness on cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). The graph theoretical approach models the brain as a complex network represented graphically as nodes and edges. We analyzed several measures of EF, an index of physical fitness, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy older volunteers to elucidate the associations among EF, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties. The topological neural properties were significantly related to the level of EF and/or physical fitness. Global efficiency, which represents how well the whole brain is integrated, was positively related, whereas local efficiency, which represents how well the brain is functionally segregated, was negatively related, to the level of EF and fitness. The associations among EF,
 physical fitness and topological resting-state functional network property appear related to compensation and dedifferentiation in older age. A mediation analysis showed that high-fit older adults gain higher global efficiency of the brain at the expense of lower local efficiency. The results suggest that physical fitness may be beneficial in maintaining EF in healthy aging by enhancing the efficiency of the global brain network.

著者Contact先の email: toshikazukawagoe[at]gmail.com([at]を@に置き換えてください)