7 国際の最近のブログ記事


Authors: Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda and Shuhei Yamaguchi
Title: Apathy and Executive Function in Healthy Elderly--Resting State fMRI Study
Journal(書誌情報): Front. Aging Neurosci., 09 May 2017
doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00124
論文URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00124

Abstract: Apathy is a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behaviors, having three subtypes. Despite executive deterioration in healthy aging, researchers have not investigated the "cognitive-deficit" subtype of apathy in healthy populations, which would result from executive dysfunction. We hypothesized that a relationship between apathy and executive function (EF) would be found in healthy older adults, accompanied with neural deterioration with functional dysconnectivity between the striatum and frontal region as suggested by previous studies. A total of 100 healthy adults in a health examination system database were analyzed. The present study indicates that apathy is substantially associated with executive deterioration, which can be partially ascribed to decreased functional connectivity between the frontal and ventral striatum. Despite some limitations, our findings may contribute to research on healthy psychological aging.

著者Contact先の email: toshikazukawagoe[at]gmail.com([at]を@に変更してください。)


Authors: Nittono, H., & Ihara, N.

Title: Psychophysiological responses to kawaii pictures with or without baby schema (ベビースキーマを含むかわいい写真と含まないかわいい写真に対する心理生理反応)

Journal(書誌情報): SAGE Open, 7(2), 1-11. 

doi: 10.1177/2158244017709321


Abstract: Baby schema has been considered a key stimulus that triggers feelings and thoughts of cuteness. Kawaii is a Japanese word that roughly translates to cute in English, but its meaning appears to be broader than cute. Specifically, cuteness is often regarded as synonymous with infant physical attractiveness, whereas kawaii is used not only for babies but also for noninfantile objects. In this study, psychophysiological responses were compared between two types of kawaii pictures: human babies and animals (kawaii with baby schema) or objects such as desserts and dress accessories (kawaii without baby schema). Twenty female university students were asked to view various pictures twice. Both types of kawaii pictures were rated to be more pleasant than neutral pictures, elicited a greater activation of the zygomaticus major muscles associated with smiling, and were viewed for a longer period when the same pictures were presented again. The effect of baby schema appeared in the zygomaticus major muscle activity, which was greater for pictures with baby schema. The findings suggest that the word kawaii expresses positive feelings that are more generic than infant attractiveness and that are associated with a motivation to approach a preferable object.

著者Contact先の email: nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: cutenessに関する海外の研究では,赤ちゃんの顔などベビースキーマに関連する刺激を扱っています。しかし,日本語の「かわいい」は,ファッションやお菓子など,赤ちゃん以外のカテゴリに対しても使われます。今回の研究では,「かわいい」の得点をそろえた上で,ベビースキーマを含むかわいい写真と含まないかわいい写真に対する主観的印象・表情筋筋電図・皮膚コンダクタンス反応・注視時間を比較しました。その結果,どちらのかわいいい写真も「接近したい」と評定され,長い時間見つめられました。他方,ベビースキーマを含む写真の方が笑顔を作る大頬骨筋の活動が大きいことが分かりました。日本語の「かわいい」の意味はcutenessよりも広く,望ましい対象に近づきたいという接近動機づけに関連しているといえそうです。


Authors: Matsumura, K., Yamakoshi, T., Rolfe, P., & Yamakoshi, K.
Title: Advanced volume-compensation method for indirect finger arterial pressure determination: Comparison with brachial sphygmomanometry
Journal(書誌情報): IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 64(5), 1131-1137.
doi: 10.1109/TBME.2016.2591324
Objective: The so-called volume-compensation method (VCM) allows noninvasive instantaneous arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement in human fingers. The VCM is mostly carried out with photoplethysmography (PPG) to detect arterial volume pulsations. However, measurement errors may occur due to movement of the PPG sensors relative to skin and underlying vasculature. We report here the effectiveness of a new technique, "advanced VCM" (AVCM), developed by us to resolve this significant problem.
Methods: The AVCM described uses a control system with procedures for adjusting system parameters derived from the pulsatile PPG signal and the finger cuff pressure. In open loop pre-operation, mean BP is estimated from a finger using the volume-oscillometric method. The control system reference is then adjusted to yield approximately equal values in mean BP and this gives optimum performance for instantaneous BP measurement. Systolic and diastolic BP values (SBP, DBP) from the instantaneous BP by the VCM and the AVCM were compared with the conventional brachial SBP/DBP measured simultaneously during 5-min baseline. SBP/DBP from the AVCM were also compared with brachial SBP/DBP during 36-min bicycle ergometer exercise.
Results: Measurement errors that occurred when the BP measurement was run using the previous VCM essentially disappeared in the AVCM. Bland-Altman analysis revealed negligible fixed and proportional bias between finger SBP/DBP and brachial SBP/DBP.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the AVCM could be an effective technique to resolve the problem of measurement errors occurring with standard VCM.
Significance: The newly proposed AVCM is potentially useful for all research and clinical situations where noninvasive continuous BP measurement is needed.
著者Contact先の email: matsumura[at]ist.hokudai.ac.jp

Authors: Yoshimasa Majima, Kaoru Nishiyama, Aki Nishihara, Ryosuke, Hata
Title: Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 8:378, 2017.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00378
論文URL: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00378/full
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the
online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the
United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing
services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the
widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown
many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples
based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present
study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing
samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk.
We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare
Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their
demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions.
The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk
participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen
devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several
recommendations concerning this sample are presented.

著者Contact先の email:
Authors: Yoshimasa Majima
Title: The Feasibility of a Japanese Crowdsourcing Service for Experimental Research in Psychology
Journal(書誌情報): SAGE Open, 7(1), 2017.
doi: 10.1177/2158244017698731
論文URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2158244017698731
Recent studies have empirically validated the data obtained from Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers behaved similarly not only in simple surveys but also in tasks
used in cognitive behavioral experiments that employ multiple trials and require
continuous attention to the task. The present study aimed to extend these findings
to data from Japanese crowdsourcing pool in which participants have different
ethnic backgrounds from Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers. In five cognitive
experiments, such as the Stroop and Flanker experiments, the reaction times and
error rates of Japanese crowdsourcing workers and those of university students
were compared and contrasted. The results were consistent with those of previous
studies, although the students responded more quickly and poorly than the workers.
These findings suggested that the Japanese crowdsourcing sample is another eligible participant
pool in behavioral research; however, further investigations are needed to
address issues of qualitative differences between student and worker samples.

著者Contact先の email:

Hidehito Honda
Yuichi Washida
Akihito Sudo
Yuichiro Wajima
Keigo Awata
Kazuhiro Ueda

The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts

Technological Forecasting and Social Change



We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.

著者Contact先の email:
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp


Authors: Kuribayashi, R., & Nittono, H.

Title: High-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness (聞こえない高周波成分を含むハイレゾ音源を聞くと意識には上らないがリラックスした注意状態が生じる)

Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 8:93

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00093


Abstract: High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5-13 Hz) and low-beta (13-20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital sound sources in which such components are artificially cut off, suggesting that high-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness.

著者Contact先の email: nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 耳には聞こえない高周波成分(> 20 kHz)を残したディジタル音源(ハイレゾ)と,それをカットした同じ音源は,意識的には区別できません。しかし,前者を聴取すると脳波のアルファ帯域パワーが増大します。その心理学的意義を調べるために,今回の実験では,2つの音源間で視覚ヴィジランス課題の成績を比較しました。その結果,高周波成分を残した音源を聴くと,アルファ帯域パワーが増えるが,行動成績は低下しないこと,事象関連電位のP3(P300)成分の振幅が聴取期間の後半で増加することが分かりました。これらの知見は,高周波帯域を残した音源は,眠気を誘うのではなく,注意状態を高める効果があることを示唆しています。

Authors: Tagai, K., Shimakura, H., Isobe, H., & Nittono, H.

Title: The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials (顔処理におけるライトメークの優位性:事象関連電位による証拠)

Journal(書誌情報): PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0172489

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172489


Abstract: The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

著者Contact先の email: keiko.tagai[at]to.shiseido.co.jp (互 恵子),
nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 前報(Frontiers in Psychology, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00226)において,ナチュラルなライトメークは,濃いヘビーメークよりも再認成績がよいことを報告しました。今回は,ライトメークを見た直後の脳電位を測定することで,化粧顔の処理について検討しました。ライトメークは,素顔やヘビーメークに比べて,N170成分(刺激提示後120-170 ms)の振幅が小さくなりました。それ以前のP1成分(80-110 ms)の振幅には差が認められませんでした。この知見は,濃すぎないナチュラルなメークを行うことにより,顔を見たときの処理が容易になることを示しています。印象評価では、ナチュラルメークの方がヘビーメークよりも魅力的と評価されていました。

Authors: Soyogu Matsushita & Shingo Nomura
Title: The Asymmetrical Influence of Timing Asynchrony of Bass Guitar and Drum Sounds on Groove
Journal(書誌情報):Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, December 2016; pp. 123-131.
Abstract: Groove is a pleasant feeling that compels people to move their bodies along with music. In the past, there was some consensus among both musicians and researchers that the main factor in inducing this feeling is onset asynchrony of sounds. However, recent studies have asserted that no-asynchrony is the condition that will obtain the highest groove. The current study examined whether no-asynchrony exclusively elicits the highest groove. In Experiment 1, we measured the groove increment of a backbeat drum pattern as a function of the asynchronies between bass guitar and hi-hat cymbal sounds. Upon evaluation, the scores of no conditions exceeded those of the synchronous condition. However, the condition with slight bass guitar precedence over the hi-hat achieved an approximately equal score to the condition with complete synchrony, and that score was higher than the ones achieved with bass delay. In Experiment 2, we measured the participants' sensitivities to timing
discrimination. The results confirmed that the amount of bass precedence in Experiment 1 was perceptible to the listeners. These findings suggest that complete synchronization is not always the best condition to achieve groove and that listeners prefer perceivable asynchronies in some cases.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp [at]を@に変換してください
日本語によるコメント: 本研究は,「音楽のグルーヴ感(音楽に合わせて体を動かしたくなる感覚)を最大にするためには複数楽器間の発音タイミングが一致している方が良いのか,ややズレている方が良いのか」,という議論に対して,心理物理学的手法でアプローチしました。結論は,「ズレはそれだけでグルーヴを明確に増幅するものではなさそうだが,ズレている条件が好ましい場合もある」,というやや折衷的なものになりました。(松下)
APSCOM 6 一般発表申込の締切延長についてのご案内

学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences
of Music(第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6)を開催いたします。



e-mail: apscom2017[at]jsmpc.org [at]を@に変えて下さい