Title: Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan
Journal(書誌情報）: Frontiers in Psychology, 8:378, 2017.
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the
online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the
United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing
services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the
widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown
many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples
based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present
study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing
samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk.
We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare
Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their
demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions.
The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk
participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen
devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several
recommendations concerning this sample are presented.
Title: The Feasibility of a Japanese Crowdsourcing Service for Experimental Research in Psychology
Journal(書誌情報）: SAGE Open, 7(1), 2017.
Recent studies have empirically validated the data obtained from Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers behaved similarly not only in simple surveys but also in tasks
used in cognitive behavioral experiments that employ multiple trials and require
continuous attention to the task. The present study aimed to extend these findings
to data from Japanese crowdsourcing pool in which participants have different
ethnic backgrounds from Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers. In five cognitive
experiments, such as the Stroop and Flanker experiments, the reaction times and
error rates of Japanese crowdsourcing workers and those of university students
were compared and contrasted. The results were consistent with those of previous
studies, although the students responded more quickly and poorly than the workers.
These findings suggested that the Japanese crowdsourcing sample is another eligible participant
pool in behavioral research; however, further investigations are needed to
address issues of qualitative differences between student and worker samples.
The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts
Technological Forecasting and Social Change
We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Title: The Asymmetrical Influence of Timing Asynchrony of Bass Guitar and Drum Sounds on Groove
Journal(書誌情報）:Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, December 2016; pp. 123-131.
Abstract: Groove is a pleasant feeling that compels people to move their bodies along with music. In the past, there was some consensus among both musicians and researchers that the main factor in inducing this feeling is onset asynchrony of sounds. However, recent studies have asserted that no-asynchrony is the condition that will obtain the highest groove. The current study examined whether no-asynchrony exclusively elicits the highest groove. In Experiment 1, we measured the groove increment of a backbeat drum pattern as a function of the asynchronies between bass guitar and hi-hat cymbal sounds. Upon evaluation, the scores of no conditions exceeded those of the synchronous condition. However, the condition with slight bass guitar precedence over the hi-hat achieved an approximately equal score to the condition with complete synchrony, and that score was higher than the ones achieved with bass delay. In Experiment 2, we measured the participants' sensitivities to timing
discrimination. The results confirmed that the amount of bass precedence in Experiment 1 was perceptible to the listeners. These findings suggest that complete synchronization is not always the best condition to achieve groove and that listeners prefer perceivable asynchronies in some cases.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp [at]を@に変換してください
学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences
of Music（第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6）を開催いたします。
e-mail: apscom2017[at]jsmpc.org [at]を@に変えて下さい
Authors: Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Title: Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding
Journal(書誌情報）: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17: 143-157, 2017.
Abstract: Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.
著者Contact先の email: tsukiura.takashi.6c[at]kyoto-u.ac.jp（月浦 崇） [at]を@に置き換えてください
Authors: Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y.
Title: The Effects of Limiting Instructions about Emotional Evidence Depend on Need for Cognition
Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
Abstract:Although limiting instructions are provided for specific evidence that may have a negative impact on jurors' decision-making, there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of the instructions. The individual predisposition towards the enjoyment of cognitive activity is called need for cognition (NFC), and individuals high in NFC tend to seek out and engage in cognitive activity spontaneously. The present study examined the influence of NFC and limiting instructions about emotional evidence on mock jurors' legal decision-making. The results showed that mock jurors who were lower in NFC were more likely to render a guilty decision than those higher in NFC, and that the tendency was more salient when the limiting instructions were presented compared with when they were not presented. Similar results were found in regard to sentencing decisions and arousal of anger. A partial mediation effect of anger was found between NFC and verdict decisions. The influence of NFC on the limiting instructions and legal decision-making as well as the effect of anger on the decision is discussed in relation to these results.
著者Contact: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com（松尾加代); yitoh[at]flet.keio.ac.jp（伊東裕司）
本夏は8月25日（金）－27日（日）と京都女子大学において、音楽の科学的研究をテーマとする学際的な国際学会として、The 6th Conference of the Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music（第6回アジア・太平洋音楽認知科学協会国際大会 APSCOM 6）を開催いたします。