7 国際の最近のブログ記事

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors: Makoto Ichikawa, Yuko Masakura (一川誠,政倉祐子)

Title: Motion capture depends upon the common fate factor among elements.

Journal(書誌情報): Perception

doi: 10.1177/0301006617720123

論文URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0301006617720123

Abstract:
When observers move the head backwards and forwards while fixating on the center of the concentric circles that consist of oblique lines, they see illusory rotation of those circles. If several dots are superimposed on the proximity to the inner concentric circles, observers see the illusory rotation not only for the circles but also for the superimposed dots. This illusory rotation of the dots is based on motion capture. In this study, in order to understand the basis of the motion capture, we examined how motion signal with different directions (rotation, expansion/contraction, and horizontal translation) in terms of motion on a display, as well as illusory motion signal from the oblique components, affects the motion capture. If the stimulus presented rotation with expansion/contraction, or rotation with horizontal translation for the entire stimulus, then observers tended to perceive motion capture for the superimposed dots. However, if the stimulus presented only rotation of the circles, then observers tended to perceive induced motion for the superimposed dots. These results suggest that the existences of the common fate factor for the entire stimulus determine the means of allocating and integrating the motion signal in each element in the stimulus to generate motion capture.

著者Contact先の email: michikawa[at]chiba-u.jp

日本語によるコメント(オプション,200-300字で):
運動捕捉とは,静止した刺激が,運動する刺激と同じ方向に動いているように見えるという錯視現象である.運動捕捉が生じると,運動刺激とは逆に動いて見える誘導運動とは反対の方向の動きが見えることになる. 今回の論文では,Pinna錯視を用いた実験により,刺激全体にかかわる共通の運動的特性,つまりは「共通運命」があれば運動捕捉が生じるのに対し,そうした共通の運動的特性がなければ誘導運動が生じるのかが決められることが示された.これらの結果は,視覚系が,刺激間の共通運命特性に従って視野内の要素への運動情報の割り当て様式を決めることを示唆している.

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors: Shigemune Y., Tsukiura T., Nouchi R., Kambara T., Kawashima R.

Title: Neural mechanisms underlying the reward-related enhancement of motivation when remembering episodic memories with high difficulty

Journal(書誌情報): Human Brain Mapping, 38(7), 3428-3443, 2017

doi: 10.1002/hbm.23599

論文URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.23599/full

Abstract:
The motivation to receive rewards enhances episodic memories, and the motivation is modulated by task difficulty. In episodic retrieval, however, functional neuroimaging evidence regarding the motivation that mediates interactions between reward and task difficulty is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated this issue. During encoding performed without fMRI, participants encoded Japanese words using either deep or shallow strategies, which led to variation in difficulty level during subsequent retrieval. During retrieval with fMRI, participants recognized the target words in either high or low monetary reward conditions. In the behavioral results, a reward-related enhancement of memory was found only when the memory retrieval was difficult, and the rewarding effect on subjective motivation was greater in the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. The fMRI data showed that reward-related increases in the activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), medial temporal lobe (MTL), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) were greater during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. Furthermore, reward-related enhancement of functional connectivity between the SN/VTA and MTL and between the SN/VTA and dmPFC during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty was significantly correlated with reward-related increases of retrieval accuracy and subjective motivation. The reward-related enhancement of episodic retrieval and retrieval-related motivation could be most effective when the level of retrieval difficulty is optimized. Such reward-related enhancement of memory and motivation could be modulated by a network including the reward-related SN/VTA, motivation-related dmPFC, and memory-related MTL.

著者Contact先の email: gemune{at}gmail.com, tsukiura.takashi.6c{at}kyoto-u.ac.jp


Authors: Yamawaki R., Nakamura K., Aso T., Shigemune Y., Fukuyama H., Tsukiura T.

Title: Remembering my friends: Medial prefrontal and hippocampal contributions to the self-reference effect on face memories in a social context

Journal(書誌情報): Human Brain Mapping, 38(8), 4256-4269, 2017

doi: 10.1002/hbm.23662

論文URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.23662/full

Abstract:
Memories associated with the self are remembered more accurately than those associated with others. The memory enhancement related to the self is known as the self-reference effect (SRE). However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the SRE in a social context modulated by social relationships. In the present fMRI study, we investigated encoding-related activation of face memories encoded with the self-referential process in a social context that was manipulated by imagining a person-to-person relationship. Healthy young adults participated in the present study. During encoding, participants encoded unfamiliar target faces by imagining a future friendship with themselves (Self), their friends (Friend), or strangers (Other). During retrieval, participants were presented with target and distracter faces one by one, and they judged whether each face had been previously learned. In the behavioral results, target faces encoded in the Self condition were remembered more accurately than those encoded in the Other condition. fMRI results demonstrated that encoding-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was significantly greater in the Self condition than in the Friend or Other conditions. In addition, the generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI) analysis showed that functional connectivity between activation in the hippocampus and the cortical midline structures (CMSs), including the mPFC and precuneus, was significant in the Self but not in the Other condition. These findings suggest that the SRE in a social context could be involved in the interaction between the CMS regions, which are related to the self-referential process, and the hippocampus related to the memory process.

著者Contact先の email: yamawaki{at}kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp, tsukiura.takashi.6c{at}kyoto-u.ac.jp

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors:Kusumi, T., Hirayama, R., & Kashima, Y.(楠見 孝・平山るみ・嘉志摩佳久)

Title:Risk Perception and Risk Talk: The Case of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Radiation Risk.
(リスクの認知と会話:福島原発事故による放射線リスク)

Journal(書誌情報):Risk Analysis: An International Journal. (電子版)

doi:10.1111/risa.12784

論文URL:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/risa.12784/full

Abstract:Individuals' perceptions and their interpersonal communication about a risk event, or risk talk, can play a significant role in the formation of societal responses to the risk event. As they formulate their risk opinions and speak to others, risk information can circulate through their social networks and contribute to the construction of their risk information environment. In the present study, Japanese citizens' risk perception and risk talk were examined in the context of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear radiation risk. We hypothesized and found that the risk information environment and risk literacy (i.e., competencies to understand and use risk information) interact to influence their risk perception and risk talk. In particular, risk literacy tends to stabilize people's risk perceptions and their risk communications. Nevertheless, there were some subtle differences between risk perception and communication, suggesting the importance of further examination of interpersonal risk communication and its role in the societal responses to risk events.

著者Contact先の email:kusumi.takashi.7u{at}kyoto-u.ac.jp

日本語によるコメント(オプション,200-300字で)
リスクをよく知る市民ほど安心できないのはなぜか -福島原発事故による放射線リスクの認知と周囲との会話を調査-
 福島第一原子力発電所事故による放射線に関わるリスクについて、人がどのように認知し人と会話をするか、そこに人の持つリスクリテラシーがどのように影響するのかは、十分明らかにされていませんでした。
 本研究は、心理学の観点から、被災地と首都圏の1,800人の市民に対する大規模調査に基づいて、リスク認知とコミュニケーションに一人一人の違い(リスクリテラシーやリスク認知の程度、そして周りの人がどのようにリスクを認知していると考えているか)がどのように影響しているかを捉えようとしたものです。
 本研究成果は、原発事故のようなリスクに対する社会の反応を解明するための手がかりになります。すなわち、放射線リスクについては、市民のリスクリテラシーや事前のリスク認知が高い場合は、安全と危険の両方の情報が提示されても、その後のリスクの認知や会話においてリスクがあるという認知が強まる傾向がありました。このことは、放射線リスクをよく知る市民が、安全情報を受け取っても安心できない現象を示した研究と考えます。
 詳細な解説は下記HPをご覧ください。
http://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/ja/research/research_results/2017/170605_2.html

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors: Yamakoshi, Y., Matsumura, K., Yamakoshi, T., Lee, J., Rolfe, P., Kato, Y., Shimizu, K., & Yamakoshi, K.
Title: Side-scattered finger-photoplethysmography: experimental investigations toward practical noninvasive measurement of blood glucose
Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Biomedical Optics, 22(6), 067001
doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.22.6.067001
論文URL: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.6.067001

Abstract: The aim of this study was to discover a simple/convenient geometrical arrangement of radiation sources and detector to acquire finger-photoplethysmograms (PPGs) with wavelength regions of blood glucose (BGL) absorption, toward practical noninvasive BGL measurement. First, we compared PPGs with three wavelengths: 808 nm (without water absorption), 1160 nm (with weak water absorption), and 1600 nm (with nearly peak BGL absorption and strong water absorption), while the source-detector spacing was successively increased circumferentially around a fingertip. In 10 healthy subjects, we observed clear cardiac-related pulsatile components of PPG signals at 808 and 1160 nm in any incident positions with more than 15 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), but reliable PPG detections at 1600 nm with more than 10 dB of S/N was only possible when the source-detector distance was less than 3 mm around the fingertip circumference. Second, with this arrangement, an experiment was performed using six wavelengths to cover glucose absorption bands (from 1550 to 1749 nm), obtaining pulsatile PPG signals with more or less 15 dB of S/N. Through the present experiments, this orthogonal arrangement of the source and detector to detect forward- and side-scattered radiation through the tissue is appropriate for PPG measurements with wavelength regions where there is potential for BGL measurement.

著者Contact先の email: matsumura[at]ist.hokudai.ac.jp([at]を@に変更してください。)

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors: Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda and Shuhei Yamaguchi
Title: Apathy and Executive Function in Healthy Elderly--Resting State fMRI Study
Journal(書誌情報): Front. Aging Neurosci., 09 May 2017
doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00124
論文URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00124

Abstract: Apathy is a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behaviors, having three subtypes. Despite executive deterioration in healthy aging, researchers have not investigated the "cognitive-deficit" subtype of apathy in healthy populations, which would result from executive dysfunction. We hypothesized that a relationship between apathy and executive function (EF) would be found in healthy older adults, accompanied with neural deterioration with functional dysconnectivity between the striatum and frontal region as suggested by previous studies. A total of 100 healthy adults in a health examination system database were analyzed. The present study indicates that apathy is substantially associated with executive deterioration, which can be partially ascribed to decreased functional connectivity between the frontal and ventral striatum. Despite some limitations, our findings may contribute to research on healthy psychological aging.

著者Contact先の email: toshikazukawagoe[at]gmail.com([at]を@に変更してください。)

国際ジャーナル掲載情報

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Authors: Nittono, H., & Ihara, N.

Title: Psychophysiological responses to kawaii pictures with or without baby schema (ベビースキーマを含むかわいい写真と含まないかわいい写真に対する心理生理反応)

Journal(書誌情報): SAGE Open, 7(2), 1-11. 

doi: 10.1177/2158244017709321

論文URL:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2158244017709321

Abstract: Baby schema has been considered a key stimulus that triggers feelings and thoughts of cuteness. Kawaii is a Japanese word that roughly translates to cute in English, but its meaning appears to be broader than cute. Specifically, cuteness is often regarded as synonymous with infant physical attractiveness, whereas kawaii is used not only for babies but also for noninfantile objects. In this study, psychophysiological responses were compared between two types of kawaii pictures: human babies and animals (kawaii with baby schema) or objects such as desserts and dress accessories (kawaii without baby schema). Twenty female university students were asked to view various pictures twice. Both types of kawaii pictures were rated to be more pleasant than neutral pictures, elicited a greater activation of the zygomaticus major muscles associated with smiling, and were viewed for a longer period when the same pictures were presented again. The effect of baby schema appeared in the zygomaticus major muscle activity, which was greater for pictures with baby schema. The findings suggest that the word kawaii expresses positive feelings that are more generic than infant attractiveness and that are associated with a motivation to approach a preferable object.

著者Contact先の email: nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: cutenessに関する海外の研究では,赤ちゃんの顔などベビースキーマに関連する刺激を扱っています。しかし,日本語の「かわいい」は,ファッションやお菓子など,赤ちゃん以外のカテゴリに対しても使われます。今回の研究では,「かわいい」の得点をそろえた上で,ベビースキーマを含むかわいい写真と含まないかわいい写真に対する主観的印象・表情筋筋電図・皮膚コンダクタンス反応・注視時間を比較しました。その結果,どちらのかわいいい写真も「接近したい」と評定され,長い時間見つめられました。他方,ベビースキーマを含む写真の方が笑顔を作る大頬骨筋の活動が大きいことが分かりました。日本語の「かわいい」の意味はcutenessよりも広く,望ましい対象に近づきたいという接近動機づけに関連しているといえそうです。

国際ジャーナル発表論文

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Authors: Matsumura, K., Yamakoshi, T., Rolfe, P., & Yamakoshi, K.
Title: Advanced volume-compensation method for indirect finger arterial pressure determination: Comparison with brachial sphygmomanometry
(手指における頑健な連続血圧計測を可能とする改良容積補償法:上腕血圧計との比較)
Journal(書誌情報): IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 64(5), 1131-1137.
doi: 10.1109/TBME.2016.2591324
Abstract:
Objective: The so-called volume-compensation method (VCM) allows noninvasive instantaneous arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement in human fingers. The VCM is mostly carried out with photoplethysmography (PPG) to detect arterial volume pulsations. However, measurement errors may occur due to movement of the PPG sensors relative to skin and underlying vasculature. We report here the effectiveness of a new technique, "advanced VCM" (AVCM), developed by us to resolve this significant problem.
Methods: The AVCM described uses a control system with procedures for adjusting system parameters derived from the pulsatile PPG signal and the finger cuff pressure. In open loop pre-operation, mean BP is estimated from a finger using the volume-oscillometric method. The control system reference is then adjusted to yield approximately equal values in mean BP and this gives optimum performance for instantaneous BP measurement. Systolic and diastolic BP values (SBP, DBP) from the instantaneous BP by the VCM and the AVCM were compared with the conventional brachial SBP/DBP measured simultaneously during 5-min baseline. SBP/DBP from the AVCM were also compared with brachial SBP/DBP during 36-min bicycle ergometer exercise.
Results: Measurement errors that occurred when the BP measurement was run using the previous VCM essentially disappeared in the AVCM. Bland-Altman analysis revealed negligible fixed and proportional bias between finger SBP/DBP and brachial SBP/DBP.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the AVCM could be an effective technique to resolve the problem of measurement errors occurring with standard VCM.
Significance: The newly proposed AVCM is potentially useful for all research and clinical situations where noninvasive continuous BP measurement is needed.
著者Contact先の email: matsumura[at]ist.hokudai.ac.jp

Authors: Yoshimasa Majima, Kaoru Nishiyama, Aki Nishihara, Ryosuke, Hata
Title: Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 8:378, 2017.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00378
論文URL: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00378/full
Abstract:
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the
online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the
United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing
services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the
widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown
many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples
based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present
study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing
samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk.
We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare
Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their
demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions.
The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk
participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen
devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several
recommendations concerning this sample are presented.

著者Contact先の email:
majima.y[at]hokusei.ac.jp
Authors: Yoshimasa Majima
Title: The Feasibility of a Japanese Crowdsourcing Service for Experimental Research in Psychology
Journal(書誌情報): SAGE Open, 7(1), 2017.
doi: 10.1177/2158244017698731
論文URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2158244017698731
Abstract:
Recent studies have empirically validated the data obtained from Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers behaved similarly not only in simple surveys but also in tasks
used in cognitive behavioral experiments that employ multiple trials and require
continuous attention to the task. The present study aimed to extend these findings
to data from Japanese crowdsourcing pool in which participants have different
ethnic backgrounds from Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers. In five cognitive
experiments, such as the Stroop and Flanker experiments, the reaction times and
error rates of Japanese crowdsourcing workers and those of university students
were compared and contrasted. The results were consistent with those of previous
studies, although the students responded more quickly and poorly than the workers.
These findings suggested that the Japanese crowdsourcing sample is another eligible participant
pool in behavioral research; however, further investigations are needed to
address issues of qualitative differences between student and worker samples.

著者Contact先の email:
majima.y[at]hokusei.ac.jp

Authors:
Hidehito Honda
Yuichi Washida
Akihito Sudo
Yuichiro Wajima
Keigo Awata
Kazuhiro Ueda

Title:
The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts

Journal:
Technological Forecasting and Social Change

doi:
10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.005

論文URL:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004016251730313X

Abstract:
We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.

著者Contact先の email:
[at]を@に変換してください
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

日本語によるコメント
現実のビジネス場面で用いられている近未来(15-20年)に関する発想支援法である未来洞察法のエキスパート(コンサルタント)と、それを初めて用いるノンエキスパート(会社員)の間で、アイデア生成の際に見られる違いを実験的に検証しました。結果として、エキスパートはノンエキスパートに比べ、多様な視点を持ち、より独創性の高いアイデアを生成していることを明らかにしました。この知見から、現実のビジネス場面において、
より創造性の高いアイデアを発想するための支援に関して、議論と提言を行いました。