Authors: Takeo Isarida, Tetsuya Sakai, Takayuki
Miho Koga, Yu Katayama, & Toshiko K. Isarida
effects in free recall after a short retention interval:
A new methodology for controlling adaptation
Journal(書誌情報）: Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 421-433.
Abstract: The present study investigated
context effects of incidental odors in
free recall after a short retention-interval (5 min). With a short retention-interval,
the results are not confounded by extraneous odors, or encounters with
the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention-interval.
A short study-time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by
adaptation to the odor, and a long study-time condition (8 s per item) were used.
Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a
dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval,
and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning
paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results.
In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words
presented one-by-one and received a free-recall test. Two pairs of odors, and
a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics, were selected
from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and
during the test the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within
the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery
from adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item
condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery from adaptation
method, context effects were found for both the 8-s/item and the 4-s/item conditions.
The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time.
There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.
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