Authors: Masataka Nakayama （中山真孝）and Satoru Saito （齊藤智）
Title: Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position
effects in repeated single-word production
Journal(書誌情報）:Cognition 131(3), 415-430.
An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of
serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of
sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the tem- poral
distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically dem- onstrated
separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that
phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly.
This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However,
such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic
constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly
represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly
from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position
effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated
in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned
principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae
and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced
a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word.
The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent
morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word
temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such
that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide
empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial
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