Authors: Kaichi Yanaoka, Satoru Saito

Title: The Development of Learning, Performing, and Controlling Repeated Sequential Actions in Young Children




Abstract: Our daily lives are composed of several sequential actions that we perform routinely, such as making breakfast, taking a train, and changing clothes. Previous research has demonstrated that a routine system plays a role in performing and controlling repeated sequential actions in familiar situations, and a top-down control system involves the control of the routine system in novel situations. Specifically, most developmental studies have focused on the top-down control system (e.g., executive functions) as a factor enabling the control of goal-directed actions in novel situations. Yet, it has not been thoroughly examined how young children learn, perform, and control repeated sequential actions in familiar contexts. In this review, based on recent computational accounts for adults, we highlight two critical aspects of the routine system from a developmental perspective: (1) automatic flexible changes of contextual representations, which enables humans to select context-dependent actions appropriately; and (2) detection of deviant situations, which signals the need for control to avoid errors. In addition, we propose the developmental mechanism underlying the routine system and its potential driving factors such as statistical regularities and executive functions. Finally, we suggest that an investigation into the interplay between routine and executive functions can form foundations for understanding learning, performing, and controlling repeated sequential actions in young children and discuss future directions in this area.

著者Contact先のEmail: yanaoka_k[at][at]を@に変更してください。)

日本語によるコメント: 本論文では、近年の行動実験研究とシミュレーション研究をもとに、幼児期の子どもが、如何にして行為系列を学び、実行し、制御するのかについてレビューを行った。具体的に、幼児期において、(1) ルーティンの学習と実行は文脈情報が柔軟に表象されることで成立し、(2) ルーティンが目標から逸脱した状況を検出することで行為選択エラーを回避していること、を明らかにした。さらに、ルーティンの発達は、行為系列に含まれる統計的規則の学習と実行機能により支えられていることを提案した。最後に、ルーティンと実行機能の相互作用に着目して、幼児期の行為系列の学習、実行、制御について更なる議論を行った。