Authors: Ueno, D., Masumoto, K., Sato, S., & Gondo, Y（上野大介、増本康平、佐藤眞一、権藤恭之）
Title: Age-Related Differences in the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Valence and Arousal Ratings among Japanese Individuals
Journal(書誌情報）: Experimental Aging Research
Abstract: Study Context: The question of whether relationships between valence and arousal might differ among older and younger adults has not yet been totally clarified. Previous studies focused on only age-related mean-differences, but in the current study mean differences and variance in emotional ratings for the International Affective Picture Systems (IAPS) were both examined in Japanese older and younger adults.
Methods: Participants were 31 older adults (69 ± 5.17 years) and 31 younger adults (19 ± 0.77 years). Each picture was projected on the screen for about 5 s in random order and participants subsequently rated its valence from “unhappy” to “happy” and its arousal from “calm” to “exciting,” using 9-point scales.
Results: Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that positive and negative valence tended to be negatively correlated with arousal in both age groups. The 95% Confidence Intervals for positive arousal in older adults included those of younger adults. Arousal ratings for negative pictures were higher than those for neutral pictures, and those for neutral pictures were higher than those for positive pictures in older adults. There were no significant differences between arousal ratings for neutral pictures and positive pictures in younger adults.
Conclusion: Older adults tended to rate the pictures as more arousing, with higher arousal ratings for negative pictures than for positive pictures, and the variance of positive arousal in older adults was the highest variance for all conditions. The results of this study suggest that older adults may be sensitive to harmful negative experiences in order to make them less aversive.
著者Contact先の email: dueno [at] koto.kpu-m.ac.jp([at] を@に置き換えてください）
本研究では、加齢によってポジティヴな情報を選択しやすくなるポジティヴィティ効果に関連して、感情の評価において年齢差がみられるかを検討した。日本人高齢者31名と若年者31名を対象にInternational Affective Picture System（IAPS）の感情価と覚醒価の評定値について平均値のみならず分散にも着目した。その結果，高齢者はポジティヴな写真よりもネガティヴな写真の方が覚醒度は高く，高齢者におけるポジティヴな写真の覚醒度の分散は，すべての条件で最も大きかった。つまり，高齢者は嫌悪感を少なくするためにネガティヴな情報に敏感であり、ネガティヴな情報を回避するため記憶や注意においてポジティヴィティ効果が生起している可能性が考えられる。