Title: Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan
Journal(書誌情報）: Frontiers in Psychology, 8:378, 2017.
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the
online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the
United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing
services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the
widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown
many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples
based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present
study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing
samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk.
We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare
Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their
demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions.
The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk
participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen
devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several
recommendations concerning this sample are presented.
Title: The Feasibility of a Japanese Crowdsourcing Service for Experimental Research in Psychology
Journal(書誌情報）: SAGE Open, 7(1), 2017.
Recent studies have empirically validated the data obtained from Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers behaved similarly not only in simple surveys but also in tasks
used in cognitive behavioral experiments that employ multiple trials and require
continuous attention to the task. The present study aimed to extend these findings
to data from Japanese crowdsourcing pool in which participants have different
ethnic backgrounds from Amazon's Mechanical Turk workers. In five cognitive
experiments, such as the Stroop and Flanker experiments, the reaction times and
error rates of Japanese crowdsourcing workers and those of university students
were compared and contrasted. The results were consistent with those of previous
studies, although the students responded more quickly and poorly than the workers.
These findings suggested that the Japanese crowdsourcing sample is another eligible participant
pool in behavioral research; however, further investigations are needed to
address issues of qualitative differences between student and worker samples.
The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts
Technological Forecasting and Social Change
We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Title: The Asymmetrical Influence of Timing Asynchrony of Bass Guitar and Drum Sounds on Groove
Journal(書誌情報）:Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, December 2016; pp. 123-131.
Abstract: Groove is a pleasant feeling that compels people to move their bodies along with music. In the past, there was some consensus among both musicians and researchers that the main factor in inducing this feeling is onset asynchrony of sounds. However, recent studies have asserted that no-asynchrony is the condition that will obtain the highest groove. The current study examined whether no-asynchrony exclusively elicits the highest groove. In Experiment 1, we measured the groove increment of a backbeat drum pattern as a function of the asynchronies between bass guitar and hi-hat cymbal sounds. Upon evaluation, the scores of no conditions exceeded those of the synchronous condition. However, the condition with slight bass guitar precedence over the hi-hat achieved an approximately equal score to the condition with complete synchrony, and that score was higher than the ones achieved with bass delay. In Experiment 2, we measured the participants' sensitivities to timing
discrimination. The results confirmed that the amount of bass precedence in Experiment 1 was perceptible to the listeners. These findings suggest that complete synchronization is not always the best condition to achieve groove and that listeners prefer perceivable asynchronies in some cases.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp [at]を@に変換してください
Authors: Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Title: Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding
Journal(書誌情報）: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17: 143-157, 2017.
Abstract: Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.
著者Contact先の email: tsukiura.takashi.6c[at]kyoto-u.ac.jp（月浦 崇） [at]を@に置き換えてください
Authors: Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y.
Title: The Effects of Limiting Instructions about Emotional Evidence Depend on Need for Cognition
Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
Abstract:Although limiting instructions are provided for specific evidence that may have a negative impact on jurors' decision-making, there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of the instructions. The individual predisposition towards the enjoyment of cognitive activity is called need for cognition (NFC), and individuals high in NFC tend to seek out and engage in cognitive activity spontaneously. The present study examined the influence of NFC and limiting instructions about emotional evidence on mock jurors' legal decision-making. The results showed that mock jurors who were lower in NFC were more likely to render a guilty decision than those higher in NFC, and that the tendency was more salient when the limiting instructions were presented compared with when they were not presented. Similar results were found in regard to sentencing decisions and arousal of anger. A partial mediation effect of anger was found between NFC and verdict decisions. The influence of NFC on the limiting instructions and legal decision-making as well as the effect of anger on the decision is discussed in relation to these results.
著者Contact: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com（松尾加代); yitoh[at]flet.keio.ac.jp（伊東裕司）
Authors: Kondo, H.M., van Loon, A.M., Kawahara, J.-I., & Moore, B.C.J.
Title: Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview
Journal (書誌情報）: Phil Trans R Soc B, 372, 20160099
Abstract: We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis.
英国王立協会から招待を受け、学術雑誌 Phil Trans R Soc B にて上記の特集号を企画、編纂して参りました。このたび、その特集号の出版が決定し、雑誌の年頭を飾る運びとなりましたのでご案内申し上げます。
Authors: Yurina Otaki, Kazuhiro Ueda, Osamu Sakura Title: Effects of feedback about community water consumption on residential water conservation Journal(書誌情報）: Journal of Cleaner Production doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.051 論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652616321060 Abstract: This study was designed to investigate methods of promoting water conservation through feedback about the level of water consumption in the long term. Most previous studies have been conducted in areas where water resources are under stress, whereas as this study was conducted in the Tokyo commuting area, where there is little worry about a water shortage. Three types of feedback about the level of water consumption in their community were provided to water users. These included actual mean consumption, consumption rank, and emoticons with written information. Feedback was sent once every two weeks during a 24-week period. Two hundreds and forty-six participants were randomly sampled from survey monitors in the Tokyo commuting area. The results indicated that effective feedback information differed for high and low water consumers. Water use in high consumers decreased when they received emoticons, whereas that in low consumers decreased when they saw that their use had decreased. Consumption in low water users did not increase even when they were notified that their consumption was relatively small. In addition, information about mean water consumption is only effective under conditions of water scarcity. In the future, the amount of regional water resources should be considered in selecting the survey area. 著者Contact先の ueda＠gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp(＠ を @に置き換えてください） 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で） 顔文字を含めた，どのような提示方法によるフィードバックが環境配慮行動（節水行 動）を促進するのかを，実験心理学的な手法で長期間（24週）にわたって調査した論 文です。
Authors: Matsuo, K., & Miura, H.
Title: Effectiveness of the Self-Administered Interview and Drawing Pictures for Eliciting Eyewitness Memories
Journal(書誌情報）: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
Abstract:The Self-Administered Interview (SAI) is a tool that is used to obtain eyewitness memories. Adopting the techniques of the cognitive interview (CI), the SAI was developed in the form of a booklet consisting of several parts. The unique aspect of the SAI is a sketch section that asks eyewitnesses to describe the context of an incident by drawing pictures. This study investigates the effectiveness of the SAI by focusing on the effect of the sketch on memory recall. Participants (n D 180) watched a crime video and recalled events in a 3 (recall method: SAI, CI, free recall [FR]) £ 2 (delay: immediate, one week) between-subjects design. The results showed no significant difference among recall methods when the information from the sketch was excluded. When the sketch information was included, the SAI gained better results than the CI and FR in terms of memory recall. In addition, memory performance was better for the immediate SAI compared with the delayed CI. The practical implications of the SAI are discussed.
著者Contact先のemail:kayomatsuo55＠gmail.com（松尾加代) ;hiroshi9＠f7.dion.ne.jp （三浦大志）(＠ を @に置き換えてください）
Author: Masasi Hattori（服部 雅史）
Title: Probabilistic representation in syllogistic reasoning: A theory to integrate mental models and heuristics（三段論法推論における確率的表象：メンタルモデルとヒューリスティックの統合理論）
Journal(書誌情報）: Cognition, 157, 296-320
Abstract: This paper presents a new theory of syllogistic reasoning. The proposed model assumes there are probabilistic representations of given signature situations. Instead of conducting an exhaustive search, the model constructs an individual-based "logical" mental representation that expresses the most probable state of affairs, and derives a necessary conclusion that is not inconsistent with the model using heuristics based on informativeness. The model is a unification of previous influential models. Its descriptive validity has been evaluated against existing empirical data and two new experiments, and by qualitative analyses based on previous empirical findings, all of which supported the theory. The model's behavior is also consistent with findings in other areas, including working memory capacity. The results indicate that people assume the probabilities of all target events mentioned in a syllogism to be almost equal, which suggests links between syllogistic reasoning and other areas of cognition.
著者Contact先の email: hat[at]lt.ritsumei.ac.jp
Authors: Hiroshi Miura and Yuji Itoh (三浦大志・伊東裕司)
Title: The effect of the feeling of resolution and recognition performance on the revelation effect
Journal(書誌情報）:Consciousness and Cognition, 45, 100-108
Abstract: The fact that engaging in a cognitive task before a recognition task increases the probability of "old" responses is known as the revelation effect. We used several cognitive tasks to examine whether the feeling of resolution, a key construct of the occurrence mechanism of the revelation effect, is related to the occurrence of the revelation effect. The results show that the revelation effect was not caused by a visual search task, which elicited the feeling of resolution, but caused by an unsolvable anagram task and an articulatory suppression task, which did not elicit the feeling of resolution. These results suggest that the revelation effect is not related to the feeling of resolution. Moreover, the revelation effect was likely to occur in participants who performed poorly on the recognition task. The result suggests that the revelation effect is inclined to occur when people depend more on familiarity than on recollection process.
著者Contact先の email: hiroshi9[at]f7.dion.ne.jp
Hidehito Honda, Toshihiko Matsuka, Kazuhiro Ueda
Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models
Journal(書誌情報）: Cognitive Science
Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We conducted competitive tests of binary choice inference models representing simple heuristics (fluency and familiarity heuristics) and knowledge-based inference models. We found that a simple heuristic model (especially a familiarity heuristic model) explained inference patterns for subjectively difficult inference tasks, and that a knowledge-based inference model explained subjectively easy inference tasks. These results were consistent with the predictions of the attribute substitution framework. Issues on usage of simple heuristics and psychological processes are discussed.
著者Contact先の email: hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Authors: Kiyofumi Miyoshi & Hiroshi Ashida Title: Attentional cueing induces false memory Journal(書誌情報）: Consciousness and Cognition, 43, 66-74 doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.05.006 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.05.006> 論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016300885 Abstract: The fluency of stimulus processing significantly contributes to recognition memory judgments. We investigated the effect of processing fluency induced by attentional cueing on recognition judgments. Participants performed a Remember/Know recognition test, while their spatial attention was manipulated in the test session. Stimulus location was either predicted (congruent condition) or unpredicted (incongruent condition) using an arrow cue. The results revealed that familiarity-based false recognition increased in the incongruent condition wherein the participants may have attributed part of the perceived disfluency to the attentional cue, and they may have overestimated the fluency for the stimulus, leading to increased false recognition. However, in the congruent condition, the participants may have attributed some parts of the perceived fluency to the attentional cue and underestimated the fluency for the stimulus, leading to decreased false recognition. In sum, stimulus-irrelevant attentional cueing induces unintentional processing about the source of fluency and biases recognition memory. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント: 下記URLにて2016年7月19日まで論文の無料閲覧が可能です。 http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1T7aH3lcz3hgzL
Yuko ADACHI, Shinnosuke USUI, Etsuko NAKAGAMI-YAMAGUCHI,
Kumiko FUJINAGA, Kazunori NAKAMURA, Keunsik PARK and Tatsuya NAKATANI
Measuring Attitudes toward Nursing Safety Violations
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 122(1), pp.5-26
This study measured implicit and explicit
attitudes toward major nursing safety violations using the Implicit Association
Test (IAT) and self-reported questionnaires, respectively. Experiment 1 sampled
nursing students (n = 71), and Experiment 2 sampled patient safety nurses (n = 38).
Although reaction time to IAT stimuli of major nursing safety
violations was quicker than of general nursing behaviors, error trials did not
reveal a significant difference between IAT stimuli of major nursing safety
violations and of general nursing behaviors in Experiment 1. Explicit attitude
was related with intention to violate safety protocols in Experiment 1. In
Experiment 2, both reaction time and error trials showed significant differences
between IAT stimuli of major nursing safety violations and of general nursing
behaviors. This was interpreted in that patient safety nurses had formed a firm
implicit attitude, unlike the nursing students; however, the findings suggested
that attitudes were not related to violations in nursing.
【1】 Authors: Minamoto,T., Shipstead,Z., Osaka, N.,Engle, R. Title: Low Cognitive Load Strengthens Distractor Interference while High Load Attenuates when Cognitive Load and Distractor Possess Similar Visual Characteristics Journal: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77, 1659-1673 doi 10.3758/s13414-015-0866-9 論文URL: http://www.springer.com/psychology/cognitive+psychology/journal/13414 Abstract: Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distracters have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load.Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors.In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org ----------- 【2】 Authors: Minamoto,T., Azuma,M., Yaoi, K., Ashizuka, A., Mima, T., Osaka, M., Fukuyama, H., Osaka, N. Title: The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence, Journal: Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 8, 992 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00992 論文URL: http:// www.frontiersin.org Abstract The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing.Using the focused version of the reading span test(RST),in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence(focusedword) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-dow nattentiona lcontrol) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions(stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS(atDCS) and cathodal tDCS(ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST,distractor words in the RST, and novel words. A tDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, a tDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the otherhand, ctDCS brought less recognition of non-focused target words in comparison to sham. The results indicate that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. Incontrast, ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from episodic memory,which may require top-down attentional processing 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com ----------- 【3】 Authors: Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M., Osaka, N. Title: The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the cognitive control. Journal: Cortex, 71, 277-290.2015 doi: org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.025 論文URL: http:// www.elsevier.com/locate/cortex Abstract Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context) and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both highand low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control, possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org ----------- 【4】 Authors: Ikeda, T., Matsuyoshi, D., Sawamoto, N., Fukuyama, H.,Osaka, N. Title: Color harmony represented by activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdale. Journal: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 382 doi: org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00382 論文URL: http:// www.frontiersin.org Abstract Observing paired colors with a different hue (in terms of chroma and lightness) engenders pleasantness from such harmonious combinations; however, negative reactions can emerge from disharmonious combinations. Currently, neural mechanisms underlying the esthetic and emotional aspects of color perception remain unknown. The current study reports evidence regarding the neural correlates of color harmony and disharmony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain regions activated by harmonious or disharmonious color combinations in comparison to other stimuli. Results showed that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and left amygdale were activated when participants observed harmonious and disharmonious stimuli, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that color disharmony may depend on stimulus properties and more automatic neural processes mediated by the amygdala,whereas color harmony is harder to discriminate based on color characteristics and is reflected by the esthetic value represented in the mOFC. This study has a limitation that we could not exclude the effect of preference for color combination, which has a strong positive correlation with color harmony. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com ----------- 【5】 Authors: Osaka, N.,Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Azuma, M., Minamoto-Shimada, Y. Osaka, M. Title: How two brains make one synchronized mind in the inferior frontal cortex: fNIRS-based hyperscanning during cooperative singing, Journal: Frontiers of Psychology, 6:1811 Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01811 論文URL: http:// www.frontiersin.org Abstract One form of communication that is common in all cultures is people singing together. Singing together reflects an index of cognitive synchronization and cooperation of human brains. Little is known about the neural synchronization mechanism, however. Here, we examined how two brains make one synchronized behavior using cooperated singing/humming between two people and hyperscanning, a new brain scanning technique. Hyperscanning allowed us to observe dynamic cooperation between interacting participants. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to simultaneously record the brain activity of two people while they cooperatively sang or hummed a song in face-to-face (FtF) or face-to-wall (FtW) conditions. By calculating the inter-brain wavelet transform coherence between two interacting brains, we found a significant increase in the neural synchronization of the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) for cooperative singing or humming regardless of FtF or FtW compared with singing or humming alone. On the other hand, the right IFC showed an increase in neural synchronization for humming only, possibly due to more dependence on musical processing. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
著者Contact先の email: asamorita[at]gmail.com
著者Contact先の email: morishima[at]icu.ac.jp
Title: Use of early phase online vision for grip configuration is modulated according to movement duration in prehension
Journal(書誌情報）: Experimental Brain Research, August 2015, Volume 233, Issue 8, pp 2257-2268
Our previous study (Hum Mov Sci 25:349-371, 2006) investigated whether and how online vision in the early phase of movement influences the control of reach-to-grasp movements (movement duration: approximately 1000 ms). We used liquid-crystal shutter goggles to manipulate the duration of available online vision during the movement and specified that online vision during the early phase influences grasping movements. The current study examined the effect of online early phase vision on the grip configuration according to the movement duration and compared it between two different movement durations (approximately 500 and 1000 ms). We found that non-availability of early phase online vision affected the grip configuration (i.e., inducing a larger peak grip aperture) even in the shorter movement duration. The influential period for online vision for grasping control shifts to an earlier time when movement time is shorter (i.e., from approximately 214 to 106 ms after movement onset), indicating a flexible mechanism for grip configuration according to the movement duration and the available online vision.
著者Contact先の email: fukui-takao[at]rehab.go.jp
Satoshi F. Nakashima, Masatoshi Ukezono, Hiroshi Nishida,
Ryuunosuke Sudo and Yuji Takano
Receiving of emotional signal of pain from conspecifics in
Royal Society Open Science
Though recent studies have shown that rodents express
emotions with their face, whether emotional expression in rodents has
a communicative function between conspecifics is still unclear. Here,
we demonstrate the ability of visual recognition of emotional
expressions in laboratory rats. We found that Long-Evans rats avoid
images of pain expressions of conspecifics but not those of neutral
expressions. The results indicate that rats use visual emotional
signals from conspecifics to adjust their behaviour in an environment
to avoid a potentially dangerous place. Therefore, emotional
expression in rodents, rather than just a mere 'expression' of
emotional states, might have a communicative function.
pages 62-70, September 2014
experienced but is consistent with a relevant schema is sometimes mistaken as memory, giving rise to false
memories. In this study, we focused on whether schema can provoke false memory for actions and for objects
even when schema-consistent targets had not been presented. We presented schema-inconsistent actions and
schema-inconsistent objects in a slide sequence depicting a kitchen. Later, we administered an old/new
recognition test with remember/know judgments and Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context ratings for
schema-inconsistent targets, schema-consistent distracters, and schema-inconsistent distracters. Both for the
actions and the objects, participants more often falsely recognized schema-consistent distracters than
schema-inconsistent distracters. That is, memory can be reconstructed along the scene schema, provoking false
memory. However, these false memories were not typically accompanied by "remember" judgments but rather
by "know" judgments. The similarity between schema-consistent targets and schema-consistent distracters is an
essential factor for false recollection.
Authors: Ryuma Kuribayashi & Hiroshi Nittono Title: Speeding up the tempo of background sounds accelerates the pace of behavior Journal: Psychology of Music (in press) doi: 10.1177/0305735614543216 論文URL: http://pom.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/07/22/0305735614543216 Abstract: Hearing fast-tempo music in the background is shown to affect the pace of motor behavior. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We investigated how tempo influences behavioral pace in a simple perceptual-motor task in which participants heard background sound sequences (30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 bpm) while performing a line-tracing task. The order of the tempo conditions (ascending vs. descending series of tempo) was manipulated. When sound sequences changed from slower to faster tempi (that is, ascending series), behavioral pace accelerated. However, the pace did not change in the descending series. The subjective arousal level increased under faster tempo sounds regardless of tempo series. The results indicated that the ongoing tempo of background sounds did not determine the behavioral pace directly through increased arousal or perceptual-motor synchronization. Not only the ongoing tempo but also the preceding tempo of background sounds is shown to be an important factor for behavioral pace change. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント： 「背景音のテンポを上げると，単純な知覚運動課題における遂行ペースが速くなる」とい う研究です。よくありそうなテーマですが，論文になっているものはそれほど多くありま せん。従来の研究との違いは，系列（文脈）の効果を考慮した点です。遅いテンポから徐 々にテンポを上げていくと遂行ペースは上がるが，最初に速いテンポを聞かせて徐々に下 げていっても遂行ペースは変化しないことが分かりました。正しいペースというものが存 在しない知覚運動課題では，背景音のテンポが増加する方向に変化したときだけ，行動ペ ースに影響を与える手がかりになると考えられます。
Authors: Koshino, H., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M.,Osaka, N. Title: Coactivation of the default mode network regions and working memory network regions during task preparation Journal: Scientific Reports,4,5954, 2014 doi: Doi:10.1038/srep05954 論文URL: http://www.nature.com/srep/index.html Abstract The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between theDMNand the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., Osaka, N. Title: Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study Journal: Scientific Reports,4,582, 2014 doi: Doi:10.1038/srep05828 論文URL: http://www.nature.com/srep/index.html Abstract: Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Akio Honda, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong, Tsuneyuki Abe
Japanese university students' attitudes toward the Fukushima nuclear disaster
Journal of Environmental Psychology
This study investigated Japanese university students' attitudes about the Fukushima nuclear accident and the relations between their attitudes and their opinions about post-disaster reconstruction policies. Gender and geographical differences were also examined. Attitude components were identified, including nuclear power plant efficiency, trust in institutions, and fear of radioactive contamination. Results revealed that men reported higher perceived nuclear power plant efficiency than women did, whereas women showed slightly higher fear of radioactive contamination than men did. Students in Miyagi had higher levels of trust in institutions than students in Tokyo did. Controlling for the effects of gender and geographical differences, fear of radioactive contamination was revealed as a predictor of opinions about post-disaster policies. In contrast, the cognitive components of attitudes did not predict the opinions.
Authors: Kenri Kodaka and Yuki Ishihara Title: Crossed hands strengthen and diversify proprioceptive drift in the self-touch illusion Journal(書誌情報）: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 422, 2014 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00422 論文URL: http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00422 Abstract: In the self-touch illusion (STI), some can feel that both hands are touching each other even when they are separated actually. This is achieved by giving synchronized touches to both hands. Because the STI involves both hands (an administrating hand and a receptive hand) of a single person, two types of proprioceptive drifts (PDs) simultaneously occur in such a way that both hands are attracted to each other. It is known that the PD distance is generally larger for the administrating hand than for the receptive hand when the two hands are uncrossed. However, it remains unclear why such an asymmetrical relationship is observed universally. In this study, we conducted two types of experiment to induce the STI. The first experiment involved four conditions combining a factor of "whether the hands are uncrossed or crossed" and a factor of "whether the administrating hand is resting or active on the surface," with the receptive (left) hand located at the body's midline. The result demonstrated that crossing hands and resting on surface (ROS) induced the STI. Specifically, crossing hands enhanced the amount of PD distance by more than two or three times. Moreover, it is interesting that strong PD with dominance of the receptive hand, which did not appear in the uncrossed condition, was observed frequently. The second experiment collected seven "illusion-sensitive" participants from the first experiment, all of whom had a strong tendency to feel the self-touch, and examined the effect of the location of the body midline on the PD when hands are crossed with the administrating hand ROS. The result demonstrated that the dominant hand on the PD completely differed among participants, but was relatively stable over the midline position and time in the same person. We also found that a small number of participants exhibited quite a different pattern of the PD in the identical posture. On the basis of the results, we analyze in detail how the dominant hand on the PD is determined in the STI. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント： 関連の映像を以下で公開しています。 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkmVnUVs7PE
Matsuyoshi, D., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.
Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload
Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 394、2014
Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an
individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual
differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity
was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age.
Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several
objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across
memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects
held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity,
but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of
VWM capacity. n addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was
alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however,
increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings
suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity
induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it can not be
recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the
prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging are
vision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of
distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored.
Tanabe-Ishibashi, A., Ikeda, T., Osaka, N
Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in
visual working memory of target faces
Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 400, 2014
Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face
in a changed context, a phenomenon known as
the "butcher-on-the-bus "effect. Whether this context effect is
a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of
memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated
how two types of contextual information associated with target faces
influence the recognition performance of the faces using
meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds.
The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on
face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak
facilitation of face recognition by there-presentation of the same
backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the
facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by
two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic
information available from scene backgrounds and visual array
information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture.
This view suggests visual working memory system can control such
context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts
information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for
recognizing the current target.
Authors: Suegami, T., Aminihasjibashi, S., and Laeng, B. Title: Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric
lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task. Journal(書誌情報）: Cognitive Processing, 15(2), 217-226 doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8 Abstract: The present study aimed to replicate category effects on colour perception and their lateralisation to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). Previous evidence for lateralisation of colour category effects has been obtained with tasks where a differently coloured target was searched within a display and participants reported the lateral location of the target. However, a left/right spatial judgment may yield LH-laterality effects per se. Thus, we employed an identification task that does not require a spatial judgment and used the same colour set that previously revealed LH-lateralised category effects. The identification task was better performed with between-category colours than with within-category task both in terms of accuracy and latency, but such category effects were bilateral or RH-lateralised, and no evidence was found for LH-laterality effects. The accuracy scores, moreover, indicated that the category effects derived from low sensitivities for within-blue !
colours and did not reflect the effects of categorical structures on colour perception. Furthermore, the classic "category effects" were observed in participants' response biases, instead of sensitivities. The present results argue against both the LH-lateralised category effects on colour perception and the existence of colour category effects per se. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Masataka Nakayama （中山真孝）and Satoru Saito （齊藤智） Title: Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position
effects in repeated single-word production Journal(書誌情報）:Cognition 131(3), 415-430. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.03.002 論文URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027714000419 Abstract: An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the tem- poral distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically dem- onstrated separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly. This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However, such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word. The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial order control. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Nakayama), email@example.com (S. Saito).
Authors: Takeo Isarida, Tetsuya Sakai, Takayuki
Miho Koga, Yu Katayama, & Toshiko K. Isarida
effects in free recall after a short retention interval:
A new methodology for controlling adaptation
Journal(書誌情報）: Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 421-433.
Abstract: The present study investigated
context effects of incidental odors in
free recall after a short retention-interval (5 min). With a short retention-interval,
the results are not confounded by extraneous odors, or encounters with
the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention-interval.
A short study-time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by
adaptation to the odor, and a long study-time condition (8 s per item) were used.
Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a
dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval,
and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning
paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results.
In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words
presented one-by-one and received a free-recall test. Two pairs of odors, and
a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics, were selected
from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and
during the test the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within
the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery
from adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item
condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery from adaptation
method, context effects were found for both the 8-s/item and the 4-s/item conditions.
The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time.
There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.
著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Sekiguchi T., Nonaka S.（関口貴裕・野中沙織） Title: The long-term effect of perspective change on the emotional intensity
of autobiographical memories. Journal: Cognition & Emotion, 28(2), 375-383 doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.825233 論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2013.825233#.UvR-ZvWChaQ Abstract: Autobiographical memories can be recalled from either a field (first-person) or an observer (third-person) perspective. Previous studies have reported that field-to-observer perspective change reduced the emotional intensity of recalled events. In the present study, we examined whether this effect has a long duration by employing follow-up measurements. The participants were asked to recall the same events repeatedly across three sessions (S1, S2, and S3): S2 was conducted about three days after S1, and S3 was conducted about four weeks after S2. The results showed a reduction in the emotional intensity of the recalled events when the perspective was changed from field to observer at S2. More importantly, this reduction in emotional intensity persisted until S3. These effects were not observed under observer-to-field perspective change at S2. These results suggest that observer perspective taking can cause plastic change in the autobiographical memory system.
著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント： 自伝的記憶をどのような視点（一人称視点 vs 三人称視点）で想起するかが，想起時に感じる 感情の強度に長期的な影響を与えることを示した研究です。一人称視点で想起された出来事を 三人称視点で想起し直すと想起時の感情強度が弱くなることが知られていますが（e.g., Berntsen & Rubin, 2006），本研究では，こうした感情強度に対する三人称視点想起の影響が同じ出来事を 四週間後に想起した場合でも見られること，また，想起視点それ自体にも影響しており三人称 視点想起の確率を高めることを見いだしました。この結果は，三人称視点の想起が貯蔵された 出来事の記憶を変化させることを示唆しています。
Takafumi Sasaoka, Hiroaki Mizuhara, and Toshio Inui
Dynamic Parieto-premotor Network for Mental Image Transformation Revealed by Simultaneous
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Previous studies have suggested that the posterior parietal cortices and premotor areas are
Authors: Jihyoung Lee, Kenta Matsumura, Takehiro Yamakoshi, Peter Rolfe, Naoto Tanaka, Kyungho Kim, & Ken-ichi Yamakoshi Title: Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring Journal(書誌情報）: Physiological Measurement, 34(3), 359-375, 2013 doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/3/359 論文URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/0967-3334/34/3/359 Abstract: Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Kenta Matsumura & Takehiro Yamakoshi Title: iPhysioMeter: A new approach for measuring heart rate and normalized pulse volume using only a smartphone Journal(書誌情報）: Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1272-1278, 2013 doi: 10.3758/s13428-012-0312-z 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13428-012-0312-z Abstract: Heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV) are physiological indices that have been used in a diversity of psychological studies. However, measuring these indices often requires laborious processes. We therefore developed a new smartphone program, named iPhysioMeter, that makes it possible to measure beat-by-beat HR and ln NPV using only a smartphone. We examined its accuracy against conventional laboratory measures. Mental stress tasks were used to alter HR and ln NPV in 12 participants. Bland-Altman analyses revealed negligible proportional bias for HR and ln NPV or for their change values, expressed as ΔHR and Δln NPV. However, a relatively large fixed bias did emerge for ln NPV, as well as a small one for Δln NPV, although both were within the limits of agreement. These findings suggest that iPhysioMeter can yield valid measures of the absolute level of HR and of relative changes in ln NPV. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Ashitaka, Y., & Shimada, H. Title:The Cultural Background of the Nonacademic Concept of Psychology in Japan: Its Implications for Introductory Education in Psychology Journal:International Journal of Psychology doi: 10.1002/ijop.12021 論文URL:http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/pijp20/current#.UsKCfLQ380M Abstract: No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non- Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. 著者Contact先の email:firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント この研究は「心理学」の非アカデミックな概念が他の国々との違いを問題にして います。国際比較をすると感情に大きくシフトし、J曲線を描きました。さらに心 理学が本来mindのみを対象とするのに対して、heartも扱うとする学生が9割いま した。マインドというカタカナを使って心理学を導入することが有用だろうと論 じています。著者の芦高勇気は博士課程の学生で、非常勤講師をしています。 なお、オープンアクセス権を取りましたので、まだin pressですが、近々神戸大 学のリポジトリまたは研究室サイトでオープンします。 嶋田博行 神戸大学 email@example.com
白鷗大学教育学部 神戸文朗 Perception, 2013, volume 42, pages 849-872 doi:10.1068/p7497 On the generality of the topological theory of visual shape perception Fumio Kanbe Faculty of Education, Hakuoh University, 1117 Daigyoji, Oyama, Tochigi 323-8585, Japan; e‑mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 27 March 2013, in revised form 26 August 2013 Abstract. This study used a series of six closely related experiments to examine whether individuals use topological structures to discriminate figures. Strict control was exerted over the selection of stimuli, which were a specific type of randomly generated lined figures that can be classified using isomorphic sets defined by graph theory. Any two figures within an isomorphic set possessed the same topological structure. The experiments described here used a same/different discrimination task with simultaneously presented pairs of figures: (a) identical pairs (Id pairs), in which each pair of figures had the same topological and superficial properties; (b) nonidentical and isomorphic pairs (Iso pairs), in which each pair had the same topological but different superficial properties; and (c) nonidentical and nonisomorphic pairs (Noniso pairs), in which each pair had different topological properties. Within these experiments I varied the conditions related to the intersecting line segments, presentation of points defining each figure, figure complexity, stimulus aspect ratios, and the parity of the total line-segment lengths between the figures in each pair. These variations showed that the latencies for making accurate discriminations were shorter for Noniso pairs than for Iso pairs, suggesting that individuals are sensitive to topology when distinguishing figures. Keywords: topology, isomorphism, graph invariants, same/different task
Authors: Morishima, Y. （森島泰則） Title: Allocation of Limited Cognitive Resources During Text Comprehension in a Second Language Journal: Discourse Processes doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2013.846964 論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0163853X.2013.846964#.UpdHGqVtzfY Abstract: For native (L1) comprehenders, lower-level language processes such as lexical access and parsing are considered to consume few cognitive resources. In contrast, these processes pose considerable demands for second-language (L2) comprehenders. Two reading-time experiments employing inconsistency detection found that English learners did not detect an inconsistency unless contradicting parts were adjacent. This suggests that the text memory that L2 comprehenders can access online is an immediately preceding sentence. This makes a sharp contrast with the finding of previous research that L1 comprehenders appeared to retrieve an earlier portion that was several sentences away. A third experiment with probe verification suggested that L2 participants did not reactivate prior text information when reading the contradicting sentence following an intervening sentence. These results provide evidence for the limited resource allocation for discourse-level processes in L2 comprehension. The results are discussed based on the two-stage model that consists of the resonance and integration processes. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors:Kristy M. Snyder & Yuki Ashitaka & Hiroyuki Shimada & Jana E. Ulrich & Gordon D. Logan Title:What skilled typists don't know about the QWERTY keyboard Attention, Perception, & Pscyhophysics Journal(書誌情報）:Attention, Perception, & Pscyhophysics doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0548-4 online first 論文URL:http://www.springer.com/psychology/cognitive+psychology/journal/13414 Abstract:We conducted four experiments to investigate skilled typists' explicit knowledge of the locations of keys on the QWERTY keyboard, with three procedures: free recall (Exp.1), cued recall (Exp.2), and recognition (Exp.3). We found that skilled typists' explicit knowledge of key locations is incomplete and inaccurate. The findings are consistent with theories of skilled performance and automaticity that associate implicit knowledge with skilled performance and explicit knowledge with novice performance. In Experiment4, we investigated whether novice typists acquire more complete explicit knowledge of key locations when learning to touchtype. We had skilled QWERTY typists complete a Dvorak touch-typing tutorial. We then tested their explicit knowledge of the Dvorak andQWERTY key locations with the free recall task.We found no difference in explicit knowledge of the two keyboards, suggesting that typists know little about key locations on the keyboard, whether they are exposed to the keyboard for 2 h or 12 years. 著者Contact先の email:firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で） タイピング活動は重要な言語活動であり、コントロール機能について盛んに 研究されています。この論文はVanderbilt大学のG. D. Loganと行った研究に よります。タッチタイピングができる熟練したタイピストでも顕在的記憶が 乏しいことをQWERTYキーボードについて3つの実験を行い、自由再生、手がか り再生、再認で調べました。またもう一つの実験で新しいキーボード (DVORAKキー) を学習させることによって調べましたた。その結果、顕在的記 憶は2つのキーボードで2時間の学習と12年の学習に違いがないことが示唆さ れました。 神戸大学海事科学研究科教授 嶋田博行 email@example.com
日本認知心理学会会員の皆様 国際交流委員会よりお知らせです。 2013年6月から皆様にご利用いただいております 国際ジャーナル掲載情報の 会員メーリングリストおよび認知心理学会サイトでの広報 ですが，10月より、下記のように運用方法を変更させて いただくことになりました。 1) <IJPaper@cogpsy.jp> に投稿された国際ジャーナル掲載情報は その都度、認知心理学会のサイトに掲載されます． その際，複数の論文掲載情報がまとめて送られてきた場合にも 1論文1記事として掲載いたします． 2) メーリングリストでの広報は月に１回とし， 一か月分の掲載情報をまとめて，翌月はじめに送信いたします． ＊変更に至った経緯は以下の通りです。 当システムの運用開始後，国際ジャーナル掲載情報が集中的に 配信された際に，大量のメイルが送られてくることに対して， 一部会員の方からご意見をいただきました（他のメールが埋もれる、 迷惑メールに分類されるなどの問題があるとのご主旨でした）． また、複数の掲載情報をまとめて送ってこられる方もいらしたことから， 皆様へのご迷惑を最小にしつつ，かつ掲載情報としての公平性と有効性を 保つために，国際交流委員会で対応策を検討し，上記案を作成しました． その後，事務委託をしている国際文献社に対し，上記作業の可能性と コストを確認し，上記作業を含む契約とすることについて 常務理事会および理事会でご承認を得ました． 以上から，当面，上記の方法で運用していきたいと考えております。 ご意見等ございましたらお寄せいただければ幸いです。 今後とも、皆様のご投稿をお待ちいたしております。 どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。
Osaka,M. Yaoi,K., Minamoto,T.,& Osaka,N.
When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance?
The present study investigated when emotion modulates working memory
from the perspective of neural activation. Using fMRI, we measured brain
activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of a reading span test
(RST) that used emotional contexts. The emotional RST required
participants to read sentences that elicited negative, neural or
positive emotional states while they were memorizing target words from
the sentences. Compared with the neutral RST, the negative RST activated
the right amygdala during the reading phase. Significant activation was
also found in the parahippocampal gyrus, albeit only after activation of
the amygdala became comparable to that in the neutral RST. In contrast,
the positive RST activated the substantia nigra during the reading phase
relative to the neutral RST. These findings suggest that negative and
positive emotions modulate working memory through distinctive neural
circuits. We also discuss possible relationships between emotional
modulation and working memory capacity.
Osaka, N.,Ikeda, T.,& Osaka, M.
Effect of intentional bias on agency attribution of animated motion: An
event-related fMRI study
Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted
as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in
intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such
intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional
bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring
associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic
resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and
twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to
participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency
attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement
increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal
sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus
(IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior
parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the
high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle
frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the
low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent
attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to
the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing
information about social interaction.
Tsubomi,H., Ikeda, T., & Osaka, N.
Primary visual cortex scales individual's perceived brightness with
power function: Inner psychophysics with fMRI.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance
Perceived brightness is well described by Stevens' power function (S. S.
Stevens, 1957, On the psychophysical law, Psychological Review, Vol. 64,
pp. 153-181), with a power exponent of .33 (the cubic-root function of
luminance). The power exponent actually varies across individuals, yet
little is known about neural substrates underlying this individual
difference. The present functional MRI study investigated how neural
activation levels in the visual cortex serve to scale individual's
subjective brightness. Participants rated brightness of a disk ranging
from 1- to 100-cd/m(2) luminance. Subjective brightness ratings showed
an almost perfect log-linear dependence on luminance intensity, with the
power exponent averaging .32. The fMRI results showed that activity in
the bilateral primary visual cortex along with the calcarine sulcus
(also known as Brodmann's area 17 and VI) increased log-linearly with
physical luminance, showing average power exponents of .32 and .27 in
the left and right hemispheres, respectively. There were substantial
individual variations in the power function exponents for both
subjective brightness ratings (.14 to .46) and primary visual cortex
activation (.12 to .55). An important finding was that 2 power exponents
were closely correlated (r = .62). Subjective brightness ratings and
primary visual cortex activation were both better correlated with
stimulus luminance than stimulus contrast (at the border of the
stimulus). These results suggest that primary visual cortex activation
can scale individual's subjective brightness in accordance with Stevens'
Matsuyoshi, D., Ikeda, T., Sawamoto, N., Kakigi, R., Fukuyama, H., &
Differential roles for parietal and occipital cortices in visual working
Visual working memory (VWM) is known as a highly capacity-limited
cognitive system that can hold 3-4 items. Recent studies have
demonstrated that activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and
occipital cortices correlates with the number of representations held in
VWM. However, differences among those regions are poorly understood,
particularly when task-irrelevant items are to be ignored. The present
fMRI-based study investigated whether memory load-sensitive regions such
as the IPS and occipital cortices respond differently to task-relevant
information. Using a change detection task in which participants are
required to remember pre-specified targets, here we show that while the
IPS exhibited comparable responses to both targets and distractors, the
dorsal occipital cortex manifested significantly weaker responses to an
array containing distractors than to an array containing only targets,
despite that the number of objects presented was the same for the two
arrays. These results suggest that parietal and occipital cortices
engage differently in distractor processing and that the dorsal
occipital, rather than parietal, activity appears to reflect output of
stimulus filtering and selection based on behavioral relevance.
Azuma, M., Ikeda, T., Minamoto, T., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.
High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control
systems under Reading Span Test
Journal of Eye Movement Research
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented
behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the
relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control
during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due
to a methodological issue including the predictability of target
location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span
test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so
that more efficient attentional control is required, and investigated
how working memory capacity contributes to eye movement control during
reading span test. Results based on total fixation time revealed that
highworking memory performers efficiently control or shift their
attention under high memory load.
Osaka,M.,Yaoi,K., Otsuka, Y., Katsuhara, M., & Osaka, N
Practice on conflict tasks promotes executive function of working memory
in the elderly.
Behavioural Brain Research
Effects of practice on a conflict task in elderly individuals are
examined with a focus on its impact on executive function in working
memory. During a short-term practice period, healthy elderly
participants practiced switching attention using a Stroop task that
involved a conflict between a task relevant stimulus and an irrelevant
stimulus. To explore neural substrates underlying practice effects, two
working memory tasks were used: a focus reading span test (F-RST) and a
non-focus reading span test (NF-RST); the NF-RST test demanded greater
switching attention due to a conflict between the relevant task stimulus
and an irrelevant task stimulus, thus requiring an attention switch from
the latter to the former. Following the Stroop task practice, fMRI data
showed that participants who had engaged in practice had significant
increases in activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left
inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
(DLPFC) and the precuneus regions during the NF-RST. By contrast, a
control group, which did not practice, showed no significant increases
in these regions. Results suggest that practice on conflict tasks in
elderly individuals activated regions related to conflict perceiving and
attention switching regions as well as attention-maintenance regions
thereby improving performance on tasks requiring a high degree of
attention control of working memory.
Osaka, M., Otsuka, Y., & Osaka, N.
Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in the elderly:
An fMRI study.
Frontiers of Human Neuroscience
The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory
performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During
verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was
introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the
control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working
memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To
explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI
was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory
task performance before and after an attention training period. In a
comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed
increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to
the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased
activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and
right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of
a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals
in the maintenance of information in working memory.
Minamoto, T., Osaka, M., Engle, R. W., & Osaka, N.
Incidental encoding of goal-irrelevant information is associated with
insufficient engagement of the dorsal frontal cortex and the inferior
Previous studies have shown that goal-irrelevant distractors are
incidentally encoded into long-term memory. Neuroimaging studies have
suggested that the medial temporal and visual association regions are
involved in incidental encoding of goal-irrelevant information. However,
few studies have investigated prefrontal/parietal influence during the
incidental encoding. The present study performed whole brain analysis to
identify the brain regions involved in the incidental encoding of
goal-irrelevant information. A face working memory (WM) task was
administered with insertion of face distractors during the delay period.
Following the WM task, a surprise recognition task was given in an MRI
scanner. Recognition rate of distractors was higher than that of novel
fillers. Recognition time was also faster in distractors than in novel
fillers. Neuroimaging results showed less activation to distractors
subsequently remembered than those forgotten in the middle and superior
frontal regions and the lateral inferior parietal lobe including the
angular gyrus and the temporoparietal regions. However, the left
anterior hippocampus and the right fusiform gyrus showed greater
activation to distractors subsequently remembered. Those findings
suggest that insufficient engagement of the dorsal frontal cortex which
regulates attentional control and the inferior parietal lobe which
functions to reorient attention may allow goal-irrelevant information
access to working memory and to be encoded into long-term memory.
Osaka, N., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., & Osaka, M.
Neural correlates of delicate sadness: An fMRI study based on the
neuroaesthetics of Noh-masks
Although the role of the amygdala in processing facial expressions of
fear is well established, its role in the processing of other emotions,
such as sadness, remains unclear. We hypothesized that the amygdala
would respond to a negative emotion such as sadness, when sadness was
represented by a theatrical mask. In the traditional Japanese Noh
theater, performers use masks to indicate many of the mental states of
the characters they portray. Here, we report a functional MRI study, in
which participants' brains were scanned while viewing Noh masks, whose
faces appeared delicately sad. Among seventy standard Noh masks
previously rated by the individual participants, we chose six top-rated
sad masks and six neutral masks to study the neural correlates of such
delicate sadness. Results based on a region of interest analysis
indicated the activation of the right amygdala while viewing sad masks.
We suggest the fact that such delicate sad masks could activate the
amygdala, and it could possibly be because of an underlying similarity
to emotions such as fear and disgust.
Tsubomi, H., Ikeda, T., Hanakawa, T., Hirose, N., Fukuyama, H., & Osaka, N.
Dissociable neural activations of conscious visibility and attention
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual consciousness of
objects is reflected by the activation in the lateral occipital cortex
as well as in the frontal and parietal cortex. However, most previous
studies used behavioral paradigms in which attention raised or enhanced
visual consciousness (visibility or recognition performance). This
co-occurrence made it difficult to reveal whether an observed cortical
activation is related to visual consciousness or attention. The present
fMRI study investigated the dissociability of neural activations
underlying these two cognitive phenomena. Toward this aim, we used a
visual backward masking paradigm in which directing attention could
either enhance or reduce the object visibility. The participantsʼ task
was to report the level of subjective visibility for a briefly presented
target object. The target was presented in the center with four
flankers, which was followed by the same number of masks. Behavioral
results showed that attention to the flankers enhanced the target
visibility, whereas attention to the masks attenuated it. The fMRI
results showed that the occipito-temporal sulcus increased activation in
the attend flankers condition compared with the attend masks condition,
and occipito-temporal sulcus activation levels positively correlated
with the target visibility in both attentional conditions. On the other
hand, the inferior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal sulcus increased
activation in both the attend flankers and attend masks compared with an
attend neither condition, and these activation levels were independent
of target visibility. Taken together, present results showed a clear
dissociation in neural activities between conscious visibility and
Authors:Shibata, Hiroshi; Inui, Toshio; Ogawa, Kenji Title:Role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in recognizing hand actions performed in social contexts: a functional MRI study Journal(書誌情報）:Neuroreport. 24(14):803-807, 2013 doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283646287 論文URL:http://journals.lww.com/neuroreport/Abstract/2013/10020 /Role_of_the_dorsolateral_prefrontal_cortex_in.8.aspx Abstract:We investigated the role of the prefrontal areas in recognizing hand actions performed in social contexts. We used video clips depicting the interaction between two individuals: one person (requester) requested the other person to pass one of two objects. The other person (responder) then passed the object that was congruent to the request in the congruent condition or incongruent in the incongruent condition. Both requester and responder appeared on screen in the two-person condition and only the responder appeared in the one-person condition. Participants were required to observe the clips and to judge whether the responder's actions were congruent or incongruent. Functional MRI showed the incongruency effect in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the brain areas including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed the interaction effect; the magnitude of activation in the incongruent condition was significantly higher than that in the congruent ! condition, but this difference was found only in the two-person condition. These results suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play an important role in the detection of incongruency between the requester's request and the responder's action depending on social contexts. 著者Contact先の email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Masasi Hattori, Steven A. Sloman, & Ryo Orita （服部雅史，スティーブン・スローマン，織田涼） Title: Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving Journal(書誌情報）: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(4), 790-797 doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0389-0 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758%2Fs13423-013-0389-0.pdf Abstract: Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems (the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2. A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem solving are discussed. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント: 実験1と2では，のべ509名の参加者が洞察問題解決（放射線問題と9点問題）を解 いた。うち半数の参加者が，閾下ヒントを含む1分間の映像を見た。ヒントは， 参加者に気づかれることはなく解決率を上昇させただけでなく，参加者の解き方 にも影響を与えた。実験3では，実験1と2で疑われた方法論的問題を解消するた め，新しい実験手法が導入された。80名の参加者が10枚硬貨問題に取り組み，う ち半数が閾下ヒントを与えられた。ヒントは，解決率と解決時間を促進した。洞 察問題の研究手段としての閾下プライミングの意味，および問題解決の理論化に 向けての意義について論じた。
Title: The schema provokes a disparity of false recollection between
actions and objects in an everyday scene
Journal(書誌情報）: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Volume 54, Issue 4,
pages 276-282, August 2013
We explored the effect of the schema on recognition memories and
subjective experiences for actions and objects in an everyday scene. At
first, participants watched slides of a man cooking in a kitchen. The
man performed schema-consistent actions, and schema-consistent objects
were left. After watching the slides, participants completed a
recognition test, a remember/know test, and a
Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire. We confirmed three
main results. First, participants made more false recognitions for
schema-consistent distracters than for schema-inconsistent distracters
with more "remember" judgments accompanied by perceptual, thought, and
contextual details, and with more "know" judgments. Second, participants
made more false recognitions for schema-consistent object distracters
than for schema-consistent action distracters. Third, participants more
frequently recognized schema-consistent action targets than
schema-consistent object targets with more "remember" judgments. Both
action memory and object memory were reconstructed under the schema,
provoking false recognitions for schema-consistent distracters. However,
the memories of schema-consistent action targets were so recollective
that they could prevent false recognitions for schema-consistent action
著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Shinohara, K., Naito, H., Matsui, Y. & Hikono, M. Title: The effects of"finger pointing and calling"on cognitive control processes in the task-switching paradigm Journal(書誌情報）: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2012.08.004 論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169814112000728 Abstract: "Finger pointing and calling (FPC)," also known simply as " pointing and calling," is an operational procedure to prevent human error and has been used extensively in Japanese industry. Although the effectiveness of FPC has been widely recognized, cognitive processes underlying FPC have not been thoroughly investigated. The current study focused on the effect of FPC on cognitive control processes responsible for the supervisory attentional system including the retrieval and activation of working memory. In the experiment, a task-switching paradigm was adopted. Twenty participants had to make a binary decision about two presented digits according to one of three task rules. Task rules to be applied were presented by a cue immediately before presenting the digits. Participants took part in a mixed rule session in which they had to switch the task rule from one trial to the next, and a single rule session in which a specific rule was applied throughout the session. FPC to the cue was incorporated. Results showed that in the mixed rule condition, the reaction was significantly faster when FPC was performed compared to when FPC was not performed. Even though the reaction became faster in the mixed rule condition with FPC, the accuracy of response was not affected. However, the preparation time, which was required for retrieving and activating the rule used for the current trial, was affected by performing FPC. In addition, the level of subjective mental workload did not change by applying FPC, which suggests that FPC was nonintrusive to the main task. These findings suggest that FPC facilitates the cognitive control processes of the supervisory attentional system, and that FPC was especially useful for the signal that requested operators to select something from memorized alternatives according to the content of the signal. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Oi, M., Saito, H., Li, Z., & Zhao, W. Title: Co-speech gesture production in an animation-narration task by bilinguals: A near-infrared spectroscopy study Journal: Brain & Language doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2013.01.004 論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0093934X13000205 Abstract: To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2), respectively. The participants showed significantly more gestures in L2 than in L1. The number of gestures lowered at the ending part of the narration in L1, but not in L2. Analyses of concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin revealed that activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) significantly increased during gesture production, while activation of the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) significantly decreased in line with an increase in the left IFG. These brain activation patterns suggest that the left IFG is involved in the gesture production, and the left pSTS is modulated by the speech load. 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で）: 発話に伴う身振産出に関わる脳内機構を検討するために，アニメーション伝達課 題を遂行中の二言語併用者の脳活動を近赤外分光法で計測した。実験参加者の課 題は，2種類のアニメーションの観察後に，それぞれの内容を母語（L1）または 第二言語（L2）で伝達することであった。実験参加者は，L2でL1よりも多くの身 振を示した。身振の産出数は，L1では伝達の終盤で減少したが，L2ではこの減少 は認められなかった。脳賦活量は，左下前頭回（IFG）において身振の産出中に 増加し，それに伴い，左上側頭溝（pSTS）では低減した。これらの脳賦活パター ンは，左IFGが身振の産出に関与し，左pSTSが発話の負荷を反映することを示唆 する。 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Liu, T., Saito, H., Oi, M., & Pelowski, M. Title: Appraisal of a copresent observer as supportive activates the left inferior parietal lobule: A near-infrared spectroscopy study using a driving video game Journal: NeuroReport doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328357bb3b 論文URL: http://journals.lww.com/neuroreport/Abstract/2012/10030/ Appraisal_of_a_copresent_observer_as_supportive.6.aspx Abstract: The role of the presence of others in a social context has been debated widely. Although the importance of mutual cognitive functions between performer and observer is generally accepted, little is known about the neural correlates of paired performers and observers themselves. In this near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study we measured the activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) when driver-observer pairs of participants performed a driving video game task. The performer's task was to drive from start to goal using a default route map, while their partner observed the performance. According to the performer's subjective appraisal of the copresent observer obtained after the driving task, the pairs were divided into three groups: supportive, nonsupportive, and neutral. The driving time, error, and tension score did not show significant differences between the three groups. However, NIRS data of performers in the supportive group showed significantly higher activation in the left IPL than those in the nonsupportive group, but not in the right IPL. NIRS data of observers in the concerned two groups did not show significant differences bilaterally in IPL. These results suggest that the left IPL distinctively responds according to a performer's cognitive appraisal of a copresent observer. 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で）: 近赤外分光法(NIRS)を用いて，運転ゲーム中の運転者役とその観察者の両側の IPLでの賦活を計測した．運転遂行者の課題は所定経路図の運転であり，観察者 の課題はその遂行の観察であった．遂行者による観察者に対する主観的評価に 従って，実験参加者のペアは，3群に分割された: 支援，非支援，中立群。遂行 者の運転時間，誤反応数，緊張評価得点は，3群間で有意差を示さなかった。し かし，NIRSデータは，観察者を支援的と評価した課題遂行者（支援群）の左IPL でのみ，非支援群よりも有意に高い賦活を示した。これらの結果は，同席する観 察者への遂行者の「主観的な」評価に応じて，遂行者の左IPL反応が異なること を示唆する。 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Suegami, T. and Laeng, B. Title: A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format. Journal: Brain and Cognition doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.10.012 論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278262612001546 Abstract: It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualita- tive or ''categorical'' spatial relations and metric or ''coordinate'' spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially- coded categorical information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing semantic-categor- ical information is observed in a non-verbal format, and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-cate- gorical processing are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested performance with the divided visual field method. In the semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting a LH's preference for processing seman- tic-categorical information in a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the processing of seman- tic-categorical information is lateralized in LH, and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical information. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Sachio Otsuka, Megumi Nishiyama, Fumitaka Nakahara, & Jun Kawaguchi（大塚幸生・西山めぐみ・中原史隆・川口 潤） Title: Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects Journal(書誌情報）: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(1), 196-207, 2013. doi: 10.1037/a0028645 論文URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xlm/39/1/196.pdf Abstract: Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment 1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and semantic information of objects in VSL. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で） 本研究では，人がどのような情報に基づいて統計的規則性を抽出・学習してい るのかを検討した。実験の結果，テスト時にオブジェクトが用いられた場合，学 習―テスト間で刺激列内のオブジェクトの呈示順序が同じ条件のみで学習効果が 見られ，順序が異なる条件では学習効果は認められなかった。一方で，テスト時 にオブジェクトを表す単語が用いられた場合，順序が同じ条件と同様に順序が異 なる条件でも学習効果が認められた。これらの結果は，オブジェクトの特徴情報 に基づいて時系列順序を抽出・学習し，さらに意味情報に基づいてオブジェクト 刺激をまとまりとして学習している可能性を示唆している。
Authors: Shin-ichi ASakawa Title: Re-Evaluation of Attractor Neural Network Model to Explain Double Dissociation in Semantic Memory Disorder Journal(書誌情報）: Psychology, ISSN Print: 2152-7180, ISSN Online: 2152-7199 doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A053 論文URL: http://www.Scirp.org/journal/psych Abstract: Structure of semantic memory was investigated in the way of neural network simulations in detail. In the literature, it is well-known that brain damaged patients often showed category specific disorder in various cognitive neuropsychological tasks like picture naming, categorisation, identification tasks and so on. In order to describe semantic memory disorder of brain damaged patients, the attractor neural network model originally proposed Hinton and Shallice (1991) was employed and was tried to re-evaluate the model performance. Especially, in order to answer the question about organization of semantic memory, how our semantic memories are organized, computer simulations were conducted. After the model learned data set (Tyler, Moss, Durrant-Peatfield, & Levy, 2000), units in hidden and cleanup layers were removed and observed its performances. The results showed category specificity. This model could also explain the double dissociation phenomena. In spite of the simplicity of its architecture, the attractor neural network might be considered to mimic human behavior in the meaning of semantic memory organization and its disorder. Although this model could explain various phenomenon in cognitive neuropsychology, it might become obvious that this model had one limitation to explain human behavior. As far as investigation in this study, asymmetry in category specificity between animate and inanimate objects might not be explained on this model without any additional assumptions. Therefore, further studies must be required to improve our understanding for semantic memory organisation. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント いくつかの国際学会で発表した内容をまとめた論文です．アトラクタニューラル ネットワークによる 意味記憶の障害に関する記述になります．神経心理学におけるカテゴリー特異性 障害のモデルとして 有効であると考えます．
Author: Yohtaro Takano (University of Tokyo) Title: Japanese Culture Explored Through Experimental Design Journal(書誌情報）: A. Kurylo (Ed.) Inter/Cultural Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013, pp. 405-412. ISBN: 978-1-4129-8693-9 Abstract: ［この論文は、本の１章なので Abstract がありません。概要を日本語で記し ます。］ この論文は、社会的認知（集団の認知）に関する研究を記した論文です。 西欧では、近代の西欧文化を「個人主義」と規定し、他の文化を「集団主義」 と規定するイデオロギーが発達しました。このイデオロギーをベースに、「欧米 人は個人主義的、日本人は集団主義的」という認識が広まり、これが「日本人 論」の中心的なドグマになりました。このドグマは、近年、心理学的な比較文化 研究のベースにもなっています。 ところが、1980年代から90年代にかけて盛んに行なわれた集団主義・個人主義 に関する実証的な国際比較研究のうち、「世界で最も個人主義的」と考えられて きたアメリカ人と「世界で最も集団主義的」と考えられてきた日本人を直接比較 した研究を総覧してみたところ、アメリカ人と日本人のあいだには、そのような 差異は全く認められないことがわかりました（Takano & Osaka, 1999）。 実証的な研究のうち、同調行動の研究については、「実験の参加者が内集団の メンバーではなかったので、日本人の場合も、集団に同調するという行動が生じ なかったのではないか」という疑義が呈されました。この疑問に答えるために、 日本で内集団のメンバーを対象にした実験を行なったのですが、その実験を記し たのがこの論文です。実験の結果、日本人は、内集団のメンバーであっても、ア メリカ人と同程度にしか集団に同調しないことが明らかになりました。 この論文では、「文化差」が、他集団に対する敵意を煽ろうとする政治的な目 的にしばしば利用されてきたことを指摘し、「文化差」の主張には確固とした実 証的な根拠が不可欠であることを強調しています。 著者Contact先の email: takano@L.u-tokyo.ac.jp 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で） この論文は、Takano & Sogon (2008) を教科書向けに短縮し、書き直したもの です。Takano & Sogon (2008) は、高野（2008）でも紹介しました。この論文の 一節は、パーソナリティ心理学の教科書 (Funder, 2012) に引用されています。 Takano, Y. & Osaka, E. (1999). An unsupported common view: Comparing Japan and the U.S. on individualism/collectivism. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 311-341. 高野陽太郎 (2008). 『「集団主義」という錯覚』 新曜社 Takano, Y. & Sogon, S. (2008). Are Japanese more collectivistic than Americans?: Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 237-250. Funder, D. C. (2012). The Personality Puzzle (6th ed). Norton.
Authors: Tadamasa Narimoto, naomi Matsuura, Tomohiro Takezawa, Yoshinori Mitsuhashi, and Michio Hiratani Title: Spatial short-term memory in children with visuospatial learning disabilities: Impairment in encoding spatial configuration (2013) Vol. 174 (1), 73-87 Journal: Journal of Genetic Psychology (5-Year Impact Factor: 1.098) (Aims & scope: The Journal of Genetic Psychology is devoted to research and theory in developmental psychology across the life span. We accept submissions in the areas of educational and cross-cultural comparative psychology if they are developmental in nature. The major thrust of the journal is empirical research and the exposition and criticism of theory doi: 10.1080/00221325.2011.641040 論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/vgnt20/174/1 Abstract: The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short- term memory. 著者Contact先のemail: email@example.com
Authors: Tatsushi Fukaya Title: Explanation generation, not explanation expectancy, improves metacomprehension accuracy Journal(書誌情報）: Metacognition and Learning 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1-18 doi: 10.1007/s11409-012-9093-0 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11409-012-9093-0 Abstract: The ability to monitor the status of one's own understanding is important to accomplish academic tasks proficiently. Previous studies have shown that comprehension monitoring (metacomprehension accuracy) is generally poor, but improves when readers engage in activities that access valid cues reflecting their situation model (activities such as concept mapping or self-explaining). However, the question still remains as to which process, encoding or retrieving, causes the improvement of metacomprehension accuracy, and the findings of previous research on this matter have been inconsistent. This study examined whether college students' metacomprehension accuracy improves when they expect, at the time of reading, that they will explain the content later (active encoding) or when they actually generate an explanation (encoding plus active retrieving). In the experiments, college students read five texts. During reading, some students expected that they would generate explanations but did not actually generate them. In contrast, some students actually generated an explanation of the text after reading. All students then rated their comprehension of each text. Finally, they completed tests on the materials. Results of both studies revealed that metacomprehension accuracy, operationalized as the association between comprehension ratings and test performance, was greater for the group that actually generated explanations than for the expectancy or control groups. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org 日本語によるコメント（オプション，200-300字で） 本研究は，2つの実験から，他の人に説明を行うと，自身の理解状態が明確化さ れる効果が得られることを示したものです。 具体的には，大学生に異なるトピックの5つの文章について，学習，理解度判 断，テストを行い，理解度判断とテスト成績の 個人内連関係数（γ係数）を算出しました。統制群や説明を予期しながら学習す るだけの説明予期群と比較して，実際に説明を 産出した群において高いγ係数が認められました。つまり，説明産出を求めるこ とで，自分がその内容を本当に理解しているのか （「分かったつもり」）を明らかにできることが示されました。
Authors: Motoyasu Honma, Nobutaka Endo, Yoshihisa Osada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama Title: Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake Journal(書誌情報）: Scientific Reports doi: 10.1038/srep00749 論文URL: http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121019/srep00749/full/srep00749.html Abstract: Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語要約: 2011年3月11日に発生した東北沖地震の約4カ月後に，余震を多く経 験した集団（地震群）と経験しなかった集団（統制群）の平衡感覚機能（体の揺 れ）と心理的ストレスを調査しました．その結果，地震群の平衡感覚は統制群に 比べて悪化しており，それに伴い心理的ストレスも増加する関係が見られまし た．また地震群では内耳機能障害を反映する低周波数帯域（緩やかな揺れ）が増 大していました．これらの結果は，繰り返す余震による物理的作用と，余震に関 連付けられた心理的ストレス反応が内耳機能異常を惹き起こす可能性を示唆しま す．本研究は災害ケアのための新しい実証的アプローチを提案しました． 日本語によるコメント: 身体の平衡維持（バランス）機能は，主に内耳の前庭器 で受容される前庭感覚の他に，視覚や聴覚，さらには情動にも影響を受ける複雑 なメカニズムだと知られています．ヒトにおける平衡維持機能障害は，メニエー ル病や脳血管障害などの症状として現れやすく，また不安障害やうつ病といった 精神疾患にも関連があるようです．平衡感覚機能が生物の体幹を現すものだと考 えると，行動指標として幅広い分野に応用できるツールだと思いました．
Title: Hyper-volume of eye-contact perception and social anxiety traits
Journal(書誌情報）: Consciousness and Cognition
Abstract: Eye-contact facilitates effective interpersonal exchange
during social interactions, but can be a considerable source of anxiety
for individuals with social phobia. However, the relationship between
the fundamental spatial range of eye-contact perception and psychiatric
traits is, to date, unknown. In this study, I analyzed the eye-contact
spatial response bias and the associated pupil response, and how they
relate to traits of social interaction disorders. In a face-to-face
situation, 21 pairs of subjects were randomly assigned to be either
viewers or perceivers. The viewer was instructed to gaze either at the
perceiver's eyes, or at a predetermined point, and the perceiver was
asked to indicate whether eye-contact had been established or not. I
found that the perceptual volume is much larger than the actual volume
of eye-contact, and that the subjective judgment of eye-contact elicited
greater pupil dilation in the perceiver. Furthermore, the relationship
between behavioral performance and social anxiety traits was identified.
These findings provide new indications that internal traits related to
lower social anxiety are potentially related to a restriction of spatial
response bias for eye-contact.
著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: ISARIDA Takeo, ISARIDA Toshiko K., & SAKAI Tetsuya Title: Effects of study time and meaningfulness on environmental context-dependent recognition Journal: Memory & Cognition, Vol 40, No. 8, 1225-1235, 2012. doi: 10.3758/s13421-012-0234-0 論文URL: http://link.springer.com/journal/13421/40/8/page/1 Abstract: In two experiments, we examined whether the size of place-context-dependent recognition decreased with study time and with the meaningfulness of the to-beremembered materials. A group of 80 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of words in a short (1.5 s per item) or a long (4.0 s per item) study-time condition (Exp. 1). Another 40 undergraduates studied lists consisting of words and nonwords in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). After a short retention interval, recognition for the targets was tested in the same or in a different context. Context was manipulated by means of the combination of place, subsidiary task, and experimenter. Significant context-dependent recognition discrimination was found for words in the shortstudy- time condition (Exp. 1), but not in the long-study-time condition (Exps. 1 and 2). Significant effects were found as well for nonwords, even in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). These results are explained well by an outshining account: that is, by principles of outshining and encoding specificity. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント 場所を操作した環境的文脈依存効果は，再生ではかなり 明確に見いだされていますが，再認では非常に不明確でした。本研究は，学習項 目の有意味性と学習時間に着目し，不明確な場所文脈依存再認を，実証的に整理 することに成功しました。また，場所文脈依存再認は，エピソード想起説（符号 化特殊性原理＋アウトシャイン原理）を用いて説明できることを実証しました。 最近，視覚文脈依存再認において有力なICE理論（熟知性での説明）では説明不 能でした。
Authors: Iwabuchi Toshiki, Inui Toshio, Ogawa Kenji Title: A functional MRI study of a picture-sentence verification task: evidence of attention shift to the grammatical subject Journal(書誌情報）: Neuroreport, 24(6):298-302. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32835f8826 論文URL: http://journals.lww.com/neuroreport/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2013&issue=04170&article=00006&type=abstract Abstract: Mapping the meaning of a sentence onto visual entities is a fundamental process of daily language use, but it is unclear how attention in the visual context influences sentence comprehension. Aiming to examine this problem, we conducted a picture-sentence matching experiment with scanning using functional MRI. In the experiment, a moving picture describing an event with two colored objects was presented on a screen. A visual cue was flashed at the position of an object's appearance just before the event presentation, and participants were instructed to pay attention to the visually cued object in the picture. They were then required to read a simple Japanese sentence and to verify whether it correctly described the previous event. To examine the effects of visual cueing, we defined two conditions on the basis of the relationship between the visually cued object in an event and the grammatical subject of the subsequent sentence. When comparing the conditions in which the visually cued object was incongruent with the grammatical subject to the congruent conditions, participants showed a lower hit rate, and the right frontal eye field, which is known to be the region related to attention shift, was more activated. These findings suggest that the attention was initially allocated to an object encoded as the grammatical subject in the process of linking the content of a sentence with a visual event. Therefore, the attention was shifted from the cued object to the other object under the conditions discussed above. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T. Title: How vision affects kinematic properties of pantomimed prehension movements. Journal(書誌情報）: Frontiers in Psychology doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00044 論文URL: http://www.frontiersin.org/Cognitive_Science/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00044/full Abstract: When performing the reach-to-grasp movement, fingers open wider than the size of a target object and then stop opening. The recorded peak grip aperture (PGA) is significantly larger when this action is performed without vision during the movement than with vision, presumably due to an error margin that is retained in order to avoid collision with the object. People can also pretend this action based on an internal target representation (i.e., pantomimed prehension), and previous studies have shown that kinematic differences exist between natural and pantomimed prehension. These differences are regarded as a reflection of variations in information processing in the brain through the dorsal and ventral streams. Pantomimed action is thought to be mediated by the ventral stream. This implies that visual information during the movement, which is essential to the dorsal stream, has little effect on the kinematic properties of pantomimed prehension. We investigated whether an online view of the external world affects pantomimed grasping, and more specifically, whether the dorsal stream is involved in its execution. Participants gazed at a target object and were then subjected to a 3-s visual occlusion, during which time the experimenter removed the object. The participants were then required to pretend to make a reach-to-grasp action toward the location where the object had been presented. Two visual conditions (full vision and no vision) were imposed during the pantomimed action by manipulating shutter goggles. The PGA showed significant differences between the two visual conditions, whereas no significant difference was noted for terminal grip aperture, which was recorded at the movement end. This suggests the involvement of the dorsal stream in pantomimed action and implies that pantomimed prehension is a good probe for revealing the mechanism of interaction between the ventral and dorsal streams, which is also linked to embodied cognition. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T. Title: Utilization of visual feedback of the hand according to target view availability for online control of prehension movements Journal(書誌情報）: Human Movement Science doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2013.03.004 論文URL: Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of online vision of a target object and the participant's moving hand in the early phase of reach-to-grasp movements. We designed an experiment that separately manipulated the visibility of a moving hand and the target object by using two liquid crystal shutter plates placed in the same horizontal plane (25 cm above the experimental table). When the view of the target was available immediately after movement onset, the effect of the view of the hand in the early phase of movement was very limited. The effect of the view of the hand emerged when the view of the target in the early phase of movement was not available. This was even the case for the condition where the temporal range of non-availability of the view of the target after movement initiation was 150 ms. Therefore, online vision (both the view of the target and of the hand) for controlling grasping was utilized in a flexible fashion that depended on the visual e nvironment. 著者Contact先の email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors: Ogawa K, Imamizu H. Title: Human sensorimotor cortex represents conflicting visuomotor mappings. Journal(書誌情報）: The Journal of Neuroscience doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4661-12.2013 論文URL: http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/15/6412.long Abstract: Behavioral studies have shown that humans can adapt to conflicting sensorimotor mappings that cause interference after intensive training. While previous research works indicate the involvement of distinct brain regions for different types of motor learning (e.g., kinematics vs dynamics), the neural mechanisms underlying joint adaptation to conflicting mappings within the same type of perturbation (e.g., different angles of visuomotor rotation) remain unclear. To reveal the neural substrates that represent multiple sensorimotor mappings, we examined whether different mappings could be classified with multivoxel activity patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Participants simultaneously adapted to opposite rotational perturbations (+90° and － 90°) during visuomotor tracking. To dissociate differences in movement kinematics with rotation types, we used two distinct patterns of target motion and tested generalization of the classifier between different combinations of rotation and motion types. Results showed that the rotation types were classified significantly above chance using activities in the primary sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, despite no significant difference in averaged signal amplitudes within the region. In contrast, low-level sensorimotor components, including tracking error and movement speed, were best classified using activities of the early visual cortex. Our results reveal that the sensorimotor cortex represents different visuomotor mappings, which permits joint learning and switching between conflicting sensorimotor skills. 著者Contact先の email: email@example.com 日本語によるコメント 行動実験から，ヒトは干渉のある複数の視覚運動変換に同時適応が可能な点が示 唆されている．本研究は，複数の感覚運動マッピングを表象する神経表象をfMRI で明らかにした．実験参加者は視覚トラッキング課題において，２種類の相反す る回転変換（＋90度または－90度）に同時適応した．適応後に運動中のfMRI活動 に対してマルチボクセルパターン分析法を用い，２つの変換条件が識別可能かを 検討した．結果から，感覚運動野の活動パターンを使って回転変換の識別が可能 であり，ヒト感覚運動野で複数の感覚運動マッピングが表象されていることが明 らかとなった．
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