日本認知心理学会 イベント情報で“IntJnlPaper”タグの付いているブログ記事

Hidehito Honda
Yuichi Washida
Akihito Sudo
Yuichiro Wajima
Keigo Awata
Kazuhiro Ueda

The difference in foresight using the scanning method between experts and non-experts

Technological Forecasting and Social Change



We examined the factors that produce differences in generating scenarios on the near future using the scanning method. Participants were asked to briefly read (scan) 151 articles about new technology, the latest customs, fashion, social change, value system transition, or emerging social problems, and then to generate three scenarios about the near future based on the articles. We compared the generated scenarios between scanning method experts and non-experts with no prior experience with the scanning method. We found that experts generated more unique scenarios than non-experts did, and that experts and non-experts differed in the diversity of articles referenced when generating scenarios. We discuss the relationship between the present findings and previous findings on divergent thinking.

著者Contact先の email:
Hidehito Honda, hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com
Kazuhiro Ueda, ueda[at]gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp


Authors: Kuribayashi, R., & Nittono, H.

Title: High-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness (聞こえない高周波成分を含むハイレゾ音源を聞くと意識には上らないがリラックスした注意状態が生じる)

Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 8:93

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00093


Abstract: High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5-13 Hz) and low-beta (13-20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital sound sources in which such components are artificially cut off, suggesting that high-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness.

著者Contact先の email: nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 耳には聞こえない高周波成分(> 20 kHz)を残したディジタル音源(ハイレゾ)と,それをカットした同じ音源は,意識的には区別できません。しかし,前者を聴取すると脳波のアルファ帯域パワーが増大します。その心理学的意義を調べるために,今回の実験では,2つの音源間で視覚ヴィジランス課題の成績を比較しました。その結果,高周波成分を残した音源を聴くと,アルファ帯域パワーが増えるが,行動成績は低下しないこと,事象関連電位のP3(P300)成分の振幅が聴取期間の後半で増加することが分かりました。これらの知見は,高周波帯域を残した音源は,眠気を誘うのではなく,注意状態を高める効果があることを示唆しています。

Authors: Tagai, K., Shimakura, H., Isobe, H., & Nittono, H.

Title: The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials (顔処理におけるライトメークの優位性:事象関連電位による証拠)

Journal(書誌情報): PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0172489

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172489


Abstract: The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

著者Contact先の email: keiko.tagai[at]to.shiseido.co.jp (互 恵子),
nittono[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

日本語によるコメント: 前報(Frontiers in Psychology, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00226)において,ナチュラルなライトメークは,濃いヘビーメークよりも再認成績がよいことを報告しました。今回は,ライトメークを見た直後の脳電位を測定することで,化粧顔の処理について検討しました。ライトメークは,素顔やヘビーメークに比べて,N170成分(刺激提示後120-170 ms)の振幅が小さくなりました。それ以前のP1成分(80-110 ms)の振幅には差が認められませんでした。この知見は,濃すぎないナチュラルなメークを行うことにより,顔を見たときの処理が容易になることを示しています。印象評価では、ナチュラルメークの方がヘビーメークよりも魅力的と評価されていました。

Authors: Soyogu Matsushita & Shingo Nomura
Title: The Asymmetrical Influence of Timing Asynchrony of Bass Guitar and Drum Sounds on Groove
Journal(書誌情報):Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, December 2016; pp. 123-131.
Abstract: Groove is a pleasant feeling that compels people to move their bodies along with music. In the past, there was some consensus among both musicians and researchers that the main factor in inducing this feeling is onset asynchrony of sounds. However, recent studies have asserted that no-asynchrony is the condition that will obtain the highest groove. The current study examined whether no-asynchrony exclusively elicits the highest groove. In Experiment 1, we measured the groove increment of a backbeat drum pattern as a function of the asynchronies between bass guitar and hi-hat cymbal sounds. Upon evaluation, the scores of no conditions exceeded those of the synchronous condition. However, the condition with slight bass guitar precedence over the hi-hat achieved an approximately equal score to the condition with complete synchrony, and that score was higher than the ones achieved with bass delay. In Experiment 2, we measured the participants' sensitivities to timing
discrimination. The results confirmed that the amount of bass precedence in Experiment 1 was perceptible to the listeners. These findings suggest that complete synchronization is not always the best condition to achieve groove and that listeners prefer perceivable asynchronies in some cases.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp [at]を@に変換してください
日本語によるコメント: 本研究は,「音楽のグルーヴ感(音楽に合わせて体を動かしたくなる感覚)を最大にするためには複数楽器間の発音タイミングが一致している方が良いのか,ややズレている方が良いのか」,という議論に対して,心理物理学的手法でアプローチしました。結論は,「ズレはそれだけでグルーヴを明確に増幅するものではなさそうだが,ズレている条件が好ましい場合もある」,というやや折衷的なものになりました。(松下)

Authors: Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Title: Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding
Journal(書誌情報): Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17: 143-157, 2017.
doi: 10.3758/s13415-016-0468-6
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-016-0468-6
Abstract: Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.
著者Contact先の email: tsukiura.takashi.6c[at]kyoto-u.ac.jp(月浦 崇)  [at]を@に置き換えてください



Authors: Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y.

Title: The Effects of Limiting Instructions about Emotional Evidence Depend on Need for Cognition

Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254588

Abstract:Although limiting instructions are provided for specific evidence that may have a negative impact on jurors' decision-making, there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of the instructions. The individual predisposition towards the enjoyment of cognitive activity is called need for cognition (NFC), and individuals high in NFC tend to seek out and engage in cognitive activity spontaneously. The present study examined the influence of NFC and limiting instructions about emotional evidence on mock jurors' legal decision-making. The results showed that mock jurors who were lower in NFC were more likely to render a guilty decision than those higher in NFC, and that the tendency was more salient when the limiting instructions were presented compared with when they were not presented. Similar results were found in regard to sentencing decisions and arousal of anger. A partial mediation effect of anger was found between NFC and verdict decisions. The influence of NFC on the limiting instructions and legal decision-making as well as the effect of anger on the decision is discussed in relation to these results.

著者Contact: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com(松尾加代); yitoh[at]flet.keio.ac.jp(伊東裕司)



Authors: Hiroko Nakamura, Jun Kawaguchi

Title: People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions

Journal(書誌情報): PloS one, 11(12), e0169166

doi: journal.pone.0169166

Abstract: Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications) regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both) of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.

著者Contact先の email: nkmr[at]asu.aasa.ac.jp ([at]を@に置き換えてください)
Authors: Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi

Title: Associations among executive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties in older adults

Journal(書誌情報): Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep40107

Abstract: Aging is associated with deterioration in a number of cognitive functions. Previous reports have demonstrated the beneficial effect of physical fitness on cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). The graph theoretical approach models the brain as a complex network represented graphically as nodes and edges. We analyzed several measures of EF, an index of physical fitness, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy older volunteers to elucidate the associations among EF, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties. The topological neural properties were significantly related to the level of EF and/or physical fitness. Global efficiency, which represents how well the whole brain is integrated, was positively related, whereas local efficiency, which represents how well the brain is functionally segregated, was negatively related, to the level of EF and fitness. The associations among EF,
 physical fitness and topological resting-state functional network property appear related to compensation and dedifferentiation in older age. A mediation analysis showed that high-fit older adults gain higher global efficiency of the brain at the expense of lower local efficiency. The results suggest that physical fitness may be beneficial in maintaining EF in healthy aging by enhancing the efficiency of the global brain network.

著者Contact先の email: toshikazukawagoe[at]gmail.com([at]を@に置き換えてください)

Authors: Kondo, H.M., van Loon, A.M., Kawahara, J.-I., & Moore, B.C.J.

Title: Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview

Journal (書誌情報): Phil Trans R Soc B, 372, 20160099

doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0099

論文URL: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1714/20160099

Abstract: We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis.

著者Contact先のemail: kondo.hirohito[at]lab.ntt.co.jp([at]を@に置き換えてください)



英国王立協会から招待を受け、学術雑誌 Phil Trans R Soc B にて上記の特集号を企画、編纂して参りました。このたび、その特集号の出版が決定し、雑誌の年頭を飾る運びとなりましたのでご案内申し上げます。



Authors: Yurina Otaki, Kazuhiro Ueda, Osamu Sakura
Title: Effects of feedback about community water consumption on residential
water conservation
Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Cleaner Production
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.051
論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652616321060
This study was designed to investigate methods of promoting water
conservation through feedback about the level of water consumption in the
long term. Most previous studies have been conducted in areas where water
resources are under stress, whereas as this study was conducted in the Tokyo
commuting area, where there is little worry about a water shortage. Three
types of feedback about the level of water consumption in their community
were provided to water users. These included actual mean consumption,
consumption rank, and emoticons with written information. Feedback was sent
once every two weeks during a 24-week period. Two hundreds and forty-six
participants were randomly sampled from survey monitors in the Tokyo
commuting area. The results indicated that effective feedback information
differed for high and low water consumers. Water use in high consumers
decreased when they received emoticons, whereas that in low consumers
decreased when they saw that their use had decreased. Consumption in low
water users did not increase even when they were notified that their
consumption was relatively small. In addition, information about mean water
consumption is only effective under conditions of water scarcity. In the
future, the amount of regional water resources should be considered in
selecting the survey area.
著者Contact先の ueda@gregorio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp(@ を @に置き換えてください)
Authors: Matsuo, K., & Miura, H.
Title: Effectiveness of the Self-Administered Interview and Drawing Pictures for
Eliciting Eyewitness Memories
Journal(書誌情報): Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13218719.2016.1254587
Abstract:The Self-Administered Interview (SAI) is a tool that is used to obtain eyewitness memories.
Adopting the techniques of the cognitive interview (CI), the SAI was developed in the form
of a booklet consisting of several parts. The unique aspect of the SAI is a sketch section that
asks eyewitnesses to describe the context of an incident by drawing pictures. This study
investigates the effectiveness of the SAI by focusing on the effect of the sketch on memory
recall. Participants (n D 180) watched a crime video and recalled events in a 3 (recall
method: SAI, CI, free recall [FR]) £ 2 (delay: immediate, one week) between-subjects
design. The results showed no significant difference among recall methods when the
information from the sketch was excluded. When the sketch information was included, the
SAI gained better results than the CI and FR in terms of memory recall. In addition, memory
performance was better for the immediate SAI compared with the delayed CI. The practical
implications of the SAI are discussed.
;hiroshi9@f7.dion.ne.jp (三浦大志)(@ を @に置き換えてください)
Author: Masasi Hattori(服部 雅史)

Title: Model fitting data from syllogistic reasoning experiments(三段論法推論実験のモデルフィット・データ)

Journal(書誌情報): Data in Brief, 9, 850-875

doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2016.09.053

Abstract: The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Probabilistic representation in syllogistic reasoning: A theory to integrate mental models and heuristics" (M. Hattori) [1]. This article presents predicted data by three signature probabilistic models of syllogistic reasoning and model fitting results for each of a total of 12 experiments (N = 404) in literature. Models are implemented in R, and their source code is also provided.

著者Contact先の email: hat@lt.ritsumei.ac.jp(@ を @に置き換えてください)

これまでに出版された三段論法実験データを整理し,Hattori (2016, Cognition, 157, 296-320) のモデルを用いて分析したデータと,Rによるモデルのコードを掲載しています。


Author: Masasi Hattori(服部 雅史)

Title: Probabilistic representation in syllogistic reasoning: A theory to integrate mental models and heuristics(三段論法推論における確率的表象:メンタルモデルとヒューリスティックの統合理論)

Journal(書誌情報): Cognition, 157, 296-320

doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.09.009

論文URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2016.09.009

Abstract: This paper presents a new theory of syllogistic reasoning. The proposed model assumes there are probabilistic representations of given signature situations. Instead of conducting an exhaustive search, the model constructs an individual-based "logical" mental representation that expresses the most probable state of affairs, and derives a necessary conclusion that is not inconsistent with the model using heuristics based on informativeness. The model is a unification of previous influential models. Its descriptive validity has been evaluated against existing empirical data and two new experiments, and by qualitative analyses based on previous empirical findings, all of which supported the theory. The model's behavior is also consistent with findings in other areas, including working memory capacity. The results indicate that people assume the probabilities of all target events mentioned in a syllogism to be almost equal, which suggests links between syllogistic reasoning and other areas of cognition.

著者Contact先の email: hat[at]lt.ritsumei.ac.jp



Authors: Hiroshi Miura and Yuji Itoh (三浦大志・伊東裕司)

Title: The effect of the feeling of resolution and recognition performance on the revelation effect

Journal(書誌情報):Consciousness and Cognition, 45, 100-108

doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.08.002

論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016302306

Abstract: The fact that engaging in a cognitive task before a recognition task increases the probability of "old" responses is known as the revelation effect. We used several cognitive tasks to examine whether the feeling of resolution, a key construct of the occurrence mechanism of the revelation effect, is related to the occurrence of the revelation effect. The results show that the revelation effect was not caused by a visual search task, which elicited the feeling of resolution, but caused by an unsolvable anagram task and an articulatory suppression task, which did not elicit the feeling of resolution. These results suggest that the revelation effect is not related to the feeling of resolution. Moreover, the revelation effect was likely to occur in participants who performed poorly on the recognition task. The result suggests that the revelation effect is inclined to occur when people depend more on familiarity than on recollection process.

著者Contact先の email: hiroshi9[at]f7.dion.ne.jp


再認判断の歪みである「リベレーション効果」に関する研究です。リベレーション効果は、認知課題に取り組んだ直後に再認判断を行うと、その「old (学習フェイズで見た)」判断率が上昇するという効果です。本研究では、認知課題が解けたという感覚がなくても、リベレーション効果が生起することを示しました。また、再認成績の悪い実験参加者の方が、成績の良い参加者に比べてリベレーション効果が生起しやすいという、本効果の生起不生起の個人差も示しました。



Hidehito Honda, Toshihiko Matsuka, Kazuhiro Ueda

Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models
Journal(書誌情報): Cognitive Science

doi: 10.1111/cogs.12395


Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We conducted competitive tests of binary choice inference models representing simple heuristics (fluency and familiarity heuristics) and knowledge-based inference models. We found that a simple heuristic model (especially a familiarity heuristic model) explained inference patterns for subjectively difficult inference tasks, and that a knowledge-based inference model explained subjectively easy inference tasks. These results were consistent with the predictions of the attribute substitution framework. Issues on usage of simple heuristics and psychological processes are discussed.

著者Contact先の email: hitohonda.02[at]gmail.com

Authors: Kiyofumi Miyoshi & Hiroshi Ashida

Title: Attentional cueing induces false memory

Journal(書誌情報): Consciousness and Cognition, 43, 66-74

doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.05.006

論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016300885

Abstract: The fluency of stimulus processing significantly contributes to
recognition memory judgments. We investigated the effect of processing
fluency induced by attentional cueing on recognition judgments.
Participants performed a Remember/Know recognition test, while their
spatial attention was manipulated in the test session. Stimulus location
was either predicted (congruent condition) or unpredicted (incongruent
condition) using an arrow cue. The results revealed that familiarity-based
false recognition increased in the incongruent condition wherein the
participants may have attributed part of the perceived disfluency to the
attentional cue, and they may have overestimated the fluency for the
stimulus, leading to increased false recognition. However, in the congruent
condition, the participants may have attributed some parts of the perceived
fluency to the attentional cue and underestimated the fluency for the
stimulus, leading to decreased false recognition. In sum,
stimulus-irrelevant attentional cueing induces unintentional processing
about the source of fluency and biases recognition memory.

著者Contact先の email: miyoshi80@gmail.com

日本語によるコメント: 下記URLにて2016年7月19日まで論文の無料閲覧が可能です。
Kumiko FUJINAGA, Kazunori NAKAMURA, Keunsik PARK and Tatsuya NAKATANI

Measuring Attitudes toward Nursing Safety Violations

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 122(1), pp.5-26



This study measured implicit and explicit
attitudes toward major nursing safety violations using the Implicit Association
Test (IAT) and self-reported questionnaires, respectively. Experiment 1 sampled
nursing students (n = 71), and Experiment 2 sampled patient safety nurses (n = 38).
Although reaction time to IAT stimuli of major nursing safety
violations was quicker than of general nursing behaviors, error trials did not
reveal a significant difference between IAT stimuli of major nursing safety
violations and of general nursing behaviors in Experiment 1. Explicit attitude
was related with intention to violate safety protocols in Experiment 1. In
Experiment 2, both reaction time and error trials showed significant differences
between IAT stimuli of major nursing safety violations and of general nursing
behaviors. This was interpreted in that patient safety nurses had formed a firm
implicit attitude, unlike the nursing students; however, the findings suggested
that attitudes were not related to violations in nursing.

著者Contact先の email:
 Tagai, K., Ohtaka, H., &amp; Nittono, H.

 Faces with light makeup are better recognized than faces with heavy makeup (ライトメークの顔はヘビーメークの顔よりも記憶に残る)

Frontiers in Psychology, 7:226

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00226


 Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light) to glamorous (heavy), depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each). In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions.

著者Contact先の email:
 keiko.tagai[at]to.shiseido.co.jp (互恵子), nittono[at]hiroshima-u.ac.jp (入戸野 宏)

Minamoto,T., Shipstead,Z., Osaka, N.,Engle, R.

Low Cognitive Load Strengthens Distractor Interference while High Load
Attenuates when Cognitive Load and Distractor Possess Similar Visual

Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77, 1659-1673

doi 10.3758/s13414-015-0866-9


Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of
distractor interference when distracters have visual characteristic that
are similar to the cognitive load.Some studies have shown that the
cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported
an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount
of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts
of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting
attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of
cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting
attentional resources needed to process distractors.In the present
study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes
(Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in
which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target
dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these
experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load
condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of
the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the
distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be
made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the
second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity
(WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and
low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in
the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

著者Contact先の email:

Minamoto,T., Azuma,M., Yaoi, K., Ashizuka, A., Mima, T., Osaka, M.,
Fukuyama, H., Osaka, N.

Title: The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances
attention toward a focus word in a sentence,

Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 8, 992

doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00992

http:// www.frontiersin.org

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions:
top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional
processing.Using the focused version of the reading span test(RST),in
which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for
comprehending a sentence(focusedword) or a non-focused word, we examined
the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the
focused word in the non-focus condition (top-dow nattentiona lcontrol)
and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both
the focus and non-focus conditions(stimulus-driven attentional
processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal
tDCS(atDCS) and cathodal tDCS(ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while
participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also
administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words
in the RST,distractor words in the RST, and novel words. A tDCS
augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in
performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect
was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, a tDCS
again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the
distractor recognition. On the otherhand, ctDCS brought less recognition
of non-focused target words in comparison to sham.  The results indicate
that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by
affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. Incontrast,
ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from
episodic memory,which may require top-down attentional processing

著者Contact先の email:

Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.

Title: The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in
working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the
cognitive control.

Cortex, 71, 277-290.2015

doi: org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.025

http:// www.elsevier.com/locate/cortex

Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral
prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working
memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural
structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering
the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study
aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences
from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal
cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control
in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context)
and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both highand
low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor
cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar
cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal
cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the
higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed
reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns
of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and
middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the
rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control,
possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and
middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory
processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control
account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits
well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC.

著者Contact先の email:

Ikeda, T., Matsuyoshi, D., Sawamoto, N., Fukuyama, H.,Osaka, N.

Title: Color harmony represented by activity in the medial orbitofrontal
cortex and amygdale.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 382

doi: org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00382

http:// www.frontiersin.org

Observing paired colors with a different hue (in terms of chroma and
lightness) engenders pleasantness from such harmonious combinations;
however, negative reactions can emerge from disharmonious combinations.
Currently, neural mechanisms underlying the esthetic and emotional
aspects of color perception remain unknown. The current study reports
evidence regarding the neural correlates of color harmony and
disharmony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess
brain regions activated by harmonious or disharmonious color
combinations in comparison to other stimuli. Results showed that the
left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and left amygdale were activated
when participants observed harmonious and disharmonious stimuli,
respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that color
disharmony may depend on stimulus properties and more automatic neural
processes mediated by the amygdala,whereas color harmony is harder to
discriminate based on color characteristics and is reflected by the
esthetic value represented in the mOFC. This study has a limitation that
we could not exclude the effect of preference for color combination,
which has a strong positive correlation with color harmony.

著者Contact先の email:

Osaka, N.,Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Azuma, M., Minamoto-Shimada, Y. Osaka, M.

Title: How two brains make one synchronized mind in the inferior frontal
cortex: fNIRS-based hyperscanning during cooperative singing,

Frontiers of Psychology, 6:1811


http:// www.frontiersin.org

One form of communication that is common in all cultures is people
singing together. Singing together reflects an index of cognitive
synchronization and cooperation of human brains. Little is known about
the neural synchronization mechanism, however. Here, we examined how two
brains make one synchronized behavior using cooperated singing/humming
between two people and hyperscanning, a new brain scanning technique.
Hyperscanning allowed us to observe dynamic cooperation between
interacting participants. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy
(fNIRS) to simultaneously record the brain activity of two people while
they cooperatively sang or hummed a song in face-to-face (FtF) or
face-to-wall (FtW) conditions. By calculating the inter-brain wavelet
transform coherence between two interacting brains, we found a
significant increase in the neural synchronization of the left inferior
frontal cortex (IFC) for cooperative singing or humming regardless of
FtF or FtW compared with singing or humming alone. On the other hand,
the right IFC showed an increase in neural synchronization for humming
only, possibly due to more dependence on musical processing.

著者Contact先の email:
Authors: Takume Takehara, Fumio Ochiai, & Naoto Suzuki
Title: Scaling laws in emotion-associated words and corresponding network topology
Journal: Cognitive Processing
doi: 10.1007/s10339-014-0643-z
Abstract: We investigated whether scaling laws were present in the appearance-frequency distribution of emotion-
associated words and determined whether the network constructed from those words had small-world or scale-free 
properties. Over 1,400 participants were asked to write down the first single noun that came to mind in response to nine 
emotional cue words, resulting in a total of 12,556 responses. We identified Zipf's law in the distribution of the data, 
as the slopes of the regression lines reached approximately -1.0 in the appearance frequencies for each emotional cue 
word. This suggested that the emotion-associated words had a clear regularity, were not randomly generated, were scale-
invariant, and were influenced by unification/diversification forces. Thus, we predicted that the emotional intensity of 
the words might play an important role for a Zipf's law. Moreover, we also found that the 1-mode network of emotion-
associated words clearly had small-world properties in terms of the network topologies of clustering, average distance, 
and small-worldness value, indicating that all nodes (words) were highly interconnected with each other and were only a 
few short steps apart. Furthermore, the data suggested the possibility of a scale-free property. Interestingly, we were 
able to identify hub words with neutral emotional content, such as 'dog', 'woman', and 'face', indicating that these 
neutral words might be an intermediary between words with conflicting emotional valence. Additionally, efficiency and 
optimal navigation in terms of complex networks were discussed.
著者Contact先の email: takehara[at]mail.doshisha.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント: 本研究では、感情手がかり語から連想される感情連想語の出現頻度分布にスケーリング則が存在するかどう

Authors: Takuma Takehara, Fumio Ochiai, & Naoto Suzuki
Title: A small-world network model of facial emotion recognition
Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
doi: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1086393
Abstract: Various models have been proposed to increase understanding of the cognitive basis of facial emotions. Despite 
those efforts, interactions between facial emotions have received minimal attention. If collective behaviours relating to 
each facial emotion in the comprehensive cognitive system could be assumed, specific facial emotion relationship patterns 
might emerge. In this study, we demonstrate that the frameworks of complex networks can effectively capture those 
patterns. We generate 81 facial emotion images (6 prototypes and 75 morphs) and then ask participants to rate degrees of 
similarity in 3240 facial emotion pairs in a paired comparison task. A facial emotion network constructed on the basis of 
similarity clearly forms a small-world network, which features an extremely short average network distance and close 
connectivity. Further, even if two facial emotions have opposing valences, they are connected within only two steps. In 
addition, we show that intermediary morphs are crucial for maintaining full network integration, whereas prototypes are 
not at all important. These results suggest the existence of collective behaviours in the cognitive systems of facial 
emotions and also describe why people can efficiently recognize facial emotions in terms of information transmission and 
propagation. For comparison, we construct three simulated networks?one based on the categorical model, one based on the 
dimensional model, and one random network. The results reveal that small-world connectivity in facial emotion networks is 
apparently different from those networks, suggesting that a small-world network is the most suitable model for capturing 
the cognitive basis of facial emotions.
著者Contact先の email: takehara[at]mail.doshisha.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント: カテゴリモデルや次元モデル等、従来の表情認知モデルは1つ1つの表情刺激同士の関連性や全体としての次
Authors: Matsuo, K. & Itoh, Y.

Title: Effects of emotional testimony and gruesome photographs on mock
jurors' decisions and negative emotions

Journal(書誌情報): Psychiatry, Psychology and Law


Abstract: The present study investigated the combined and individual
effects of emotional testimony and gruesome photographs on mock
jurors' verdict decisions and emotions. Participants (*n* = 127) were
provided with a murder trial transcript and then rendered verdicts in
a 2 (emotional testimony: present, absent) × 2 (gruesome photographs:
present, absent) between-groups design. They also rated their negative
emotions before and after the transcript. The results indicated a
combined effect of emotional testimony and gruesome photographs on
verdict decisions: the emotional testimony alone had a significant
effect on guilty verdicts while the gruesome photographs had only a
marginally significant effect. Negative emotions were aroused by the
emotional testimony when the gruesome photographs were not presented.
The impact of emotional evidence on verdict decisions is discussed.

著者Contact先の email: kayomatsuo55[at]gmail.com

Authors: Morita, A., Morishima, Y., & Rackham, W. D.
Title: Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activation during a Time
Production Task: A
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.
Journal(書誌情報): Asian Journal of Neuroscience, 2015, Article ID 189060
doi: 10.1155/2015/189060
論文URL: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ajn/2015/189060/
Accurate time estimation is crucial for many human activities and
necessitates the use of working memory, in which the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role. We tested the hypothesis
that the DLPFC is activated in participants attempting time estimations
that require working memory. Specifically, we used functional near-infrared
spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate prefrontal cortical activity in the
brains of individuals performing a prospective time production task. We
measured cerebral hemodynamic responses in 26 healthy right-handed
university students while they marked the passage of specified time
intervals (3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 s) or performed a button-pressing (control)
task. The behavioral results indicated that participants' time estimations
were accurate with minimal variability. The fNIRS data showed that activity
was significantly higher in the right DLPFC during the time estimation task
compared to the control task. Theoretical considerations and the results of
this study suggest that DLPFC activation resulting from time estimation
indicates that the working memory system is in use.

著者Contact先の email: asamorita[at]gmail.com
Authors: Morishima, Y.
Title: Elaborations for the Validation of Causal Bridging Inferences in
Text Comprehension.
Journal(書誌情報):  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, July, 2015 ('Online
First' version)
doi: 10.1007/s10936-015-9387-x
The validation model of causal bridging inferences proposed by Singer and
colleagues (e.g., Singer in Can J Exp Psychol, 47(2):340-359, 1993) claims
that before a causal bridging inference is accepted, it must be validated
by existing knowledge. For example, to understand "Dorothy took the
aspirins. Her pain went away," one first computes a mediating idea RELIEVE
[ASPIRIN, PAIN]. Then, the truth of it is validated on the basis of
existing knowledge. The present study examined the hypothesis that a causal
inference would be drawn and validated even when validating knowledge is
not familiar or available because elaborations are made to retrieve or
construct such knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that people tend to judge
naturalness of a text based on causal relations and that causality was
indeed recognized in those texts in which the antecedent sentence and the
consequence sentence are not linked by familiar knowledge. Experiment 2,
which measured sentence reading times, showed that while sentence
processing times were longer for such texts than texts involving familiar
knowledge, there was no difference between these texts in reading the
subsequent sentence describing the validating idea. These results provided
evidence supporting elaboration as well as validation of causal bridging

著者Contact先の email: morishima[at]icu.ac.jp
Authors: Takao Fukui, Toshio Inui
Title: Use of early phase online vision for grip configuration is modulated according to movement duration in prehension
Journal(書誌情報): Experimental Brain Research, August 2015, Volume 233, Issue 8, pp 2257-2268
doi: 10.1007/s00221-015-4295-8
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00221-015-4295-8
Our previous study (Hum Mov Sci 25:349-371, 2006) investigated whether and how online vision in the early phase of movement influences the control of reach-to-grasp movements (movement duration: approximately 1000 ms). We used liquid-crystal shutter goggles to manipulate the duration of available online vision during the movement and specified that online vision during the early phase influences grasping movements. The current study examined the effect of online early phase vision on the grip configuration according to the movement duration and compared it between two different movement durations (approximately 500 and 1000 ms). We found that non-availability of early phase online vision affected the grip configuration (i.e., inducing a larger peak grip aperture) even in the shorter movement duration. The influential period for online vision for grasping control shifts to an earlier time when movement time is shorter (i.e., from approximately 214 to 106 ms after movement onset), indicating a flexible mechanism for grip configuration according to the movement duration and the available online vision.

著者Contact先の email: fukui-takao[at]rehab.go.jp
Authors: Morikawa, K., Matsushita, S., Tomita, A. and Yamanami, H.
Title: A real-lifeillusion of assimilation in the humanface: eye size illusion causedby eyebrows and eye shadow.
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9:139 (2015).
Abstract: Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows. 
著者Contact先の email: morikawa[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント: 目と眉の距離(眉の位置が低いまたは高い),アイシャドウの有無、および観察距離(近条件0.6mと遠条件5m)の3要因が目の過大錯視に及ぼす効果を検証しました。心理物理学的手法で錯視量を測定した結果,高い眉の条件でのみ,観察距離が近い場合と比べて遠い場合ではアイシャドウによる目の過大視が増幅されました。このことは,観察距離が遠い場合にアイシャドウのグラデーションが目と高い眉の同化を促進させることを意味します。顔画像の代わりにデルブーフ錯視図形を用いた実験でも観察距離が遠い場合にグラデーションが同様の効果を生じました。これらの結果から,アイシャドウの錯視効果はデルブーフ錯視の原理に基づき,目と眉の知覚的同化を生じさせることが示唆されました。
Authors: Matsushita, S., Morikawa, M., Mitsuzane, S. and Yamanami, H.
Title: Eye shape illusions induced by eyebrow positions.
Journal(書誌情報): Perception, 44, 529-540(2015)
Abstract: We investigated whether the position of the eyebrows influences the perceived shape of the eyes by employing psychophysical measurements. Experiment 1 used arched and straight eyebrows at five different inclinations as stimuli and measured the perceived inclination of the eyes. The results demonstrated that the eyes are perceived to be somewhat inclined in the same direction as the eyebrows. Experiment 2 measured the perceived eye size by manipulating the distance between the eyes and the eyebrows and the curvature of the eyebrows across three levels. The results showed that the lower eyebrows (ie closer to eyes) made the eyes appear larger and the higher eyebrows made the eyes appear smaller, while eyebrow curvature had no effect on perceived eye size. Experiment 3 examined the role of the eye-eyebrow distance in the eye inclination illusion shown in experiment 1. The eye inclination illusion was unaffected by the eye-eyebrow distance, suggesting that the eye inclination illusion and the eye size illusion may involve different kinds of assimilation. These illusions are discussed in terms of face perception and possible practical applications.
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント: この研究は,眉を変えれば目の形も違って見える,という現象を心理物理学的手法で明らかにしました。実験1の結果,知覚される目の角度(つり上がり具合・たれ下がり具合)は眉の角度と同化することが明らかにされました。さらに実験2では,眉を低い位置に描くと目が大きく知覚され,高い位置に描くと小さく知覚されることも明らかになりました。眉は顔パーツの中で化粧・手入れにより最も劇的に変化させることができるパーツです。本研究の知見は,化粧法に関する実用的な意義のみならず,顔認知における全体処理・部分処理に関する考察,顔パーツ形状の同化・対比錯視に関する示唆を与えます。

Authors: Matsushita, S., Morikawa, K. and Yamanami, H.
Title: Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.
Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Cosmetic Science, 66(3), 161-174(2015)
Abstract: Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation. 
著者Contact先の email: soyogu[at]hus.osaka-u.ac.jp 
日本語によるコメント: アイメイクで,目は何パーセント大きく見えるのでしょうか?実験1では,アイランとマスカラの濃さを20段階に系統的操作し,それらの目がどの程度大きく見えるのかを心理物理学的手法で厳密に測定しました。また実験2では,アイシャドウによる目の拡大効果も同様に測定しました。実験の結果,それらのアイメイクは,(条件間の差はあるが)目を面積換算でおよそ110%の大きさに知覚させることが明らかになりました。この研究で用いた化粧は,不自然に濃いようなものではなく,実際にプロのメイクアップアーティストが自然で美しいと感じるレベルで施されました。 


Title: Latency of modality-specific reactivation of auditory and
visual information during episodic memory retrieval

Journal(書誌情報): NeuroReport, 26(6), 303-308



Abstract: This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the
latency of modality-specific reactivation in the visual and auditory
cortices during a recognition task to determine the effects of
reactivation on episodic memory retrieval. Nine right-handed healthy
young adults participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted
of a word-encoding phase and two recognition phases. Three encoding
conditions were included: encoding words alone (word-only) and
encoding words presented with either related pictures (visual) or
related sounds (auditory). The recognition task was conducted in the
MEG scanner 15?min after the completion of the encoding phase. After
the recognition test, a source-recognition task was given, in which
participants were required to choose whether each recognition word was
not presented or was presented with which information during the
encoding phase. Word recognition in the auditory condition was higher
than that in the word-only condition. Confidence-of-recognition scores
(d′) and the source-recognition test showed superior performance in
both the visual and the auditory conditions compared with the
word-only condition. An equivalent current dipoles analysis of MEG
data indicated that higher equivalent current dipole amplitudes in the
right fusiform gyrus occurred during the visual condition and in the
superior temporal auditory cortices during the auditory condition,
both 450?550?ms after onset of the recognition stimuli. Results
suggest that reactivation of visual and auditory brain regions during
recognition binds language with modality-specific information and that
reactivation enhances confidence in one's recognition performance.

著者Contact先の email: d-ueno[at]koshien.ac.jp

 Itaguchi Y, Yamada C, Fukuzawa K?

 Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing

 PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128419.



 The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing
with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often
move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example,
when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning
air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of
kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing
two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the
effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks;
participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing
during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which
participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used
the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance.
The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of
cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated
identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior
did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of
the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger
movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance
and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior
contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent
contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction
between action and cognition in daily life.

著者Contact先の email:

Satoshi F. Nakashima, Masatoshi Ukezono, Hiroshi Nishida,
Ryuunosuke Sudo and Yuji Takano

Receiving of emotional signal of pain from conspecifics in
laboratory rats

 Royal Society Open Science

doi: 10.1098/rsos.140381


Though recent studies have shown that rodents express
emotions with their face, whether emotional expression in rodents has
a communicative function between conspecifics is still unclear. Here,
we demonstrate the ability of visual recognition of emotional
expressions in laboratory rats. We found that Long-Evans rats avoid
images of pain expressions of conspecifics but not those of neutral
expressions. The results indicate that rats use visual emotional
signals from conspecifics to adjust their behaviour in an environment
to avoid a potentially dangerous place. Therefore, emotional
expression in rodents, rather than just a mere 'expression' of
emotional states, might have a communicative function.

著者Contact先の email:
nakashima.satoshi[at]lab.ntt.co.jp; shaikh.cogpsy[at]gmail.com

Author:  Fumio Kanbe

Title: Can the comparisons of feature locations explain the difficulty in
discriminating mirror-reflected pairs of geometrical figures from
disoriented identical pairs?

Journal: Symmetry 2015, 7, 89-104 (Online version)

doi: 10.3390/sym7010089

Abstract: The present experiment investigates whether patterns of shifts of
feature locations could affect the same/different decisions of
simultaneously presented pairs of geometrical figures. A shift of locations
was defined as the angular distance from the location of a feature in one
figure to the location of the same feature in another figure.  It was
hypothesized that the difficulty in discriminating mirror-reflected (or
axisymmetric) pairs from disoriented identical pairs was caused by complex
shifting patterns inherent in axisymmetric pairs. According to the shifts of
the locations of the four structural features, five pair types were
prepared.  They could be ordered from completely identical to completely
different in their shifts: identical 0/4 pairs, non-identical 1/4 pairs,
non-identical 2/4 pairs = axisymmetric 2/4 pairs and non-identical 4/4
pairs. The latencies for non-identical pairs decreased with the increase of
difference in the shifts of feature locations, indicating that serial,
self-terminating comparisons of the shifts were applied to the
discrimination of non-identical pairs from identical pairs. However, the
longer latencies in axisymmetric 2/4 pairs than in non-identical 2/4 pairs
suggested that the difficulty for axisymmetric pairs was not caused by the
complex shifting patterns, and the difficulty was not satisfactorily
explained by the comparisons of feature locations.

Keywords:  same/different decision; axisymmetry; graph invariant; shifts of
feature locations; mental rotation 

Hajimu Hayashi and Yuki Shiomi

Do children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion?

International Journal of Behavioral Development , 39(1), 1-8.

doi: DOI: 10.1177/0165025414548777


This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion
depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders,
80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative
feelings because of the behavior of the other character. In the prosocial context, children were
instructed that the protagonist wished to spare the other character's feelings. In contrast, in the
real-emotion context, children were told that the protagonist was fed up with the other character's
behavior. Participants were asked to imagine what the protagonists would say. Adults selected
utterances with positive or neutral emotion in the prosocial context but chose utterances with
negative emotion in the real-emotion context, whereas first-graders selected utterances with
negative emotion in both contexts. In the prosocial context, the proportion of utterances with
negative emotion decreased from first-graders to adults, whereas in the real-emotion context the
proportion was U-shaped, decreasing from first- to third-graders and increasing from fifth-graders
to adults. Further, performance on both contexts was associated with second-order false beliefs as
well as second-order intention understanding. These results indicate that children begin to
understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon context after 8 to 9
years. This ability is also related to second-order theory of mind.

著者Contact先の email:

Tanabe-Ishibashi, A., Ikeda, T.,Osaka, N.

Title: Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces 

Frontiers in Psychology, 5,article400, 1-8、2014

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00400 



 Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful(scene) or meaningless(scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1)disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2)weak facilitation of face recognition by the representation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target. 

著者Contact先の email:

Matsuyoshi, D., Osaka, M., Osaka, N. 

Title:Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload

Frontiers in Psychology, 5,article384,1-7,2014

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00384


Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory(VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decrease sin VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. 

著者Contact先の email:

Otsuka, Y. Osaka, N. 

High-performers use the phonological loop less to process mental arithmetic during working memory tasks

Quarterly Journal of Experimental
Psychology 68, 2015 (online version)



This study investigated the effects of three working memory components--the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad--on performance differences in complex mental arithmetic between individuals. Using the dual-task method, we examined how performance during two-digit
addition was affected by load on the central executive (random tapping condition), phonological loop (articulatory suppression condition), and visuospatial sketchpad (spatial tapping condition) compared to that under no load (control condition) in high- and low-performers of complex mental arithmetic in Experiment 1. Low-performers showed an increase in errors under the random tapping and articulatory suppression conditions, whereas high-performers showed an increase of errors only under the random tapping condition. In Experiment 2, we conducted similar experiments on only
the high-performers but used a shorter presentation time of each number. We found the same pattern for performing complex mental arithmetic as seen in Experiment 1. These results indicate that high-performers might reduce their dependence on the phonological loop, because the central executive enables them to choose a strategy in which they use less working memory capacity. 

著者Contact先の email:

Author:  Yohtaro Takano
Title:   Mirror reversal of slanted objects: A psycho-optic explanation.
Journal(書誌情報):   Philosophical Psychology, 2015, 28(2), 240-259.
doi:  10.1080/09515089.2013.819279
著者の email:  yohtaro.takano[at]gmail.com

 鏡映反転の理由については、普通は「鏡の中では、上下は反対にならないのに、左右が反対になるのは何故か?」と問われますが、実際には、「上下が反対に見えて、左右が反対に見えない」、「上下も左右も反対に見える」、「どちらも反対に見えない」など、様々な鏡像が存在します。著者は、それら全ての場合を統一的に説明する「多重プロセス理論」を提案し(Takano, 1998)、実験によってその妥当性を立証しました(Takano & Tanaka, 2007)。
 この理論は、対象が鏡と向かい合っている(対象の左右軸が鏡面と平行な)場合と、横向きになっている(左右軸が鏡面と垂直な)場合とを別々の原理で説明していました。この点に着目した研究者から、「対象が鏡と斜めになっている場合が説明できていない」という批判がなされました(Corballis, 2000; Tabata & Okuda, 2000)。
 Philosophical Psychology という雑誌は、日本の認知心理学者にはあまり馴染みがないと思いますが、Ulric Neisser が日常記憶研究の必要性を訴える論文を最初に掲載した雑誌です。

No agreed-upon account of mirror reversal is currently available although it has been discussed for more than two thousand years since Plato. Mirror reversal usually refers to recognized left-right reversal of a mirror image. Depending on the nature and layout of a reflected object, however, top-bottom reversal may be recognized instead of left-right reversal; no reversal at all may be recognized; and the presence or absence of reversal may not be decidable. Takano (1998) proposed a psycho-optic theory to explain all these cases of mirror image recognition in a consistent manner. The proposed theory assumes different causes of mirror reversal depending on whether an object's left-right axis is parallel or perpendicular to a mirror's surface. This theory was later criticized in that it provided no explanation when the left-right axis is neither parallel nor perpendicular but at an intermediate angle between 0 and 90 degrees with a mirror. This article completes the theory by presenting psycho-optic analyses to show that mirror reversal at an intermediate angle can be explained within the same basic framework of the theory.

Authors: Nakamura, H., Ito, Y., Honma, Y., Mori, T., & Kawaguchi, J.

Title:Cold-hearted or cool-headed: physical coldness promotes
utilitarian moral judgment.

Journal(書誌情報):Frontiers in psychology, 5: 1086.

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01086

Abstract: In the current study, we examine the effect of physical
coldness on personal moral dilemma judgment. Previous studies have
indicated that utilitarian moral judgment?sacrificing a few people to
achieve the greater good for others?was facilitated when: (1)
participants suppressed an initial emotional response and deliberately
thought about the utility of outcomes; (2) participants had a
high-level construal mindset and focused on abstract goals (e.g., save
many); or (3) there was a decreasing emotional response to sacrificing
a few. In two experiments, we exposed participants to extreme cold or
typical room temperature and then asked them to make personal moral
dilemma judgments. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that coldness
prompted utilitarian judgment, but the effect of coldness was
independent from deliberate thought or abstract high-level construal
mindset. As Experiment 2 revealed, coldness facilitated utilitarian
judgment via reduced empathic feelings. Therefore, physical coldness
did not affect the "cool-headed" deliberate process or the abstract
high-level construal mindset. Rather, coldness biased people toward
being "cold-hearted," reduced empathetic concern, and facilitated
utilitarian moral judgments.

著者Contact先の email: nakamura.hiroko[at]b.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp
Authors: Nakashima, S. F., Morimoto, Y., Takano, Y., Yoshikawa, S. &
Hugenberg,  K.

Title: Faces in the dark: interactive effects of darkness and anxiety
on the memory for threatening faces.
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1091
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01091
Abstract: In the current research, we extend past work on the effects
of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive
faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and
individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar
expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or
light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy,
and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed
an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target
expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse
memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other
hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither
by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that
ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but
also that person × situation effects should be considered in face
recognition research.
著者Contact先の email: nakashima.satoshi[at]lab.ntt.co.jp; shaikh.cogpsy[at]gmail.com

Authors: Kitaoka, A.
Title: Color-dependent motion illusions in stationary images and their phenomenal dimorphism
Journal(書誌情報):  Perception
The color-dependent motion illusion in stationary images?a special type of the Fraser?Wilcox illusion?is introduced and discussed. The direction of illusory motion changes depending on whether the image is of high or low luminance and whether the room is bright or dark. This dimorphism of illusion was confirmed by surveys. It is suggested that two different spatial arrangements of color can produce the motion illusion. One is a spatial arrangement where long- and short-wavelength color regions sandwich a darker strip; the other is where the same color regions sandwich a brighter strip.
著者Contact先の email: akitaoka[at]lt.ritsumei.ac.jp

Masanori Kobayashi & Yoshihiko Tanno

Remembering episodic memories is not necessary for forgetting of
negative words: Semantic retrieval can cause forgetting of negative

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Online first



Retrieval of a memory can induce forgetting of other related memories,
which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting. Although most studies
have investigated retrieval-induced forgetting by remembering episodic
memories, this also can occur by remembering semantic memories. The
present study shows that retrieval of semantic memories can lead to
forgetting of negative words. In two experiments, participants learned
words and then engaged in retrieval practice where they were asked to
recall words related to the learned words from semantic memory.
Finally, participants completed a stem-cued recall test for the
learned words. The results showed forgetting of neutral and negative
words, which was characteristic of semantic retrieval-induced
forgetting. A certain degree of overlapping features, except same
learning episode, is sufficient to cause retrieval-induced forgetting
of negative words. Given the present results, we conclude that
retrieval-induced forgetting of negative words does not require
recollection of episodic memories.

著者Contact先の email:
Sachiko Takahama and Jun Saiki

Functional connectivity supporting the selective maintenance of
feature-location binding in visual working memory.

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 507



Information on an object's features bound to its location is very
important for maintaining object representations in visual working
memory. Interactions with dynamic multi-dimensional objects in an
external environment require complex cognitive control, including the
selective maintenance of feature-location binding. Here, we used
event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate
brain activity and functional connectivity related to the maintenance
of complex feature-location binding. Participants were required to
detect task-relevant changes in feature-location binding between
objects defined by color, orientation, and location. We compared a
complex binding task requiring complex feature-location binding
(color-orientation-location) with a simple binding task in which
simple feature-location binding, such as color-location, was
task-relevant and the other feature was task-irrelevant. Univariate
analyses showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC),
hippocampus, and frontoparietal network were activated during the
maintenance of complex feature-location binding. Functional
connectivity analyses indicated cooperation between the inferior
precentral sulcus (infPreCS), DLPFC, and hippocampus during the
maintenance of complex feature-location binding. In contrast, the
connectivity for the spatial updating of simple feature-location
binding determined by reanalyzing the data from Takahama et al. (2010)
demonstrated that the superior parietal lobule (SPL) cooperated with
the DLPFC and hippocampus. These results suggest that the connectivity
for complex feature-location binding does not simply reflect general
memory load and that the DLPFC and hippocampus flexibly modulate the
dorsal frontoparietal network, depending on the task requirements,
with the infPreCS involved in the maintenance of complex
feature-location binding and the SPL involved in the spatial updating
of simple feature-location binding.

著者Contact先の email:
Authors: Ryoma Yamada, Yukio Itsukushima, Tanjeem Azad, & D. Stephen Lindsay

Title: Schema Provoke False Knowing Even When Schema-Consistent Targets Had Not Been Presented

Journal(書誌情報): International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 6, No 3,
pages 62-70, September 2014
doi: 10.5539/ijps.v6n3p62

論文URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v6n3p62

Human memory is not always an accurate record of experienced events. Information that has never been
experienced but is consistent with a relevant schema is sometimes mistaken as memory, giving rise to false
memories. In this study, we focused on whether schema can provoke false memory for actions and for objects
even when schema-consistent targets had not been presented. We presented schema-inconsistent actions and
schema-inconsistent objects in a slide sequence depicting a kitchen. Later, we administered an old/new
recognition test with remember/know judgments and Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context ratings for
schema-inconsistent targets, schema-consistent distracters, and schema-inconsistent distracters. Both for the
actions and the objects, participants more often falsely recognized schema-consistent distracters than
schema-inconsistent distracters. That is, memory can be reconstructed along the scene schema, provoking false
memory. However, these false memories were not typically accompanied by "remember" judgments but rather
by "know" judgments. The similarity between schema-consistent targets and schema-consistent distracters is an
essential factor for false recollection.

著者Contact先の email: ryom_cc@yahoo.co.jp

ただし,虚回想には至らなかった。虚回想が生じるには,ターゲットと妨害刺激の類似性が必要と 考えられる。

Ryuma Kuribayashi, Ryuta Yamamoto, & Hiroshi Nittono

High-resolution music with inaudible high-frequency components produces a lagged
 effect on human electroencephalographic activities

NeuroReport, 25(9), 657ー661. 


論文URL (DOIが間違ってリンクされているので PubMed からどうぞ):

High-quality digital sound sources with inaudible high-frequency components 
(above 20 kHz) have become available because of recent advances in information 
technology. Listening to such sounds has been shown to increase the [alpha]-band
 power of an electroencephalogram (EEG). The present study scrutinized the time 
course of this effect by recording EEG along with autonomic measures (skin 
conductance level and heart rate) and facial electromyograms (corrugator 
supercilii and zygomaticus major). Twenty university students (19-24 years old) 
listened to two types of a 200-s musical excerpt (J. S. Bach's French Suite No. 
5) with or without inaudible high-frequency components using a double-blind 
method. They were asked to rate the sound quality and to judge which excerpt 
contained high-frequency components. High-alpha EEG power (10.5-13 Hz) was 
larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt 
without them. This effect was statistically significant only in the last quarter
 of the period (150-200 s). Participants were not able to distinguish between 
the excerpts, which did not produce any discernible differences in subjective, 
autonomic, and facial muscle measures. This study shows that inaudible high-
frequency components have an impact on human brain activity without conscious 
awareness. Unlike a standard test for sound quality, at least 150 s of exposure 
is required to examine this effect in future research.

著者Contact先の email:

Ryuma Kuribayashi & Hiroshi Nittono

Speeding up the tempo of background sounds accelerates the pace of behavior

Psychology of Music (in press)



Hearing fast-tempo music in the background is shown to affect the pace of motor 
behavior. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We 
investigated how tempo influences behavioral pace in a simple perceptual-motor 
task in which participants heard background sound sequences (30, 60, 120, 180, 
and 240 bpm) while performing a line-tracing task. The order of the tempo 
conditions (ascending vs. descending series of tempo) was manipulated. When 
sound sequences changed from slower to faster tempi (that is, ascending series),
 behavioral pace accelerated. However, the pace did not change in the descending
 series. The subjective arousal level increased under faster tempo sounds 
regardless of tempo series. The results indicated that the ongoing tempo of 
background sounds did not determine the behavioral pace directly through 
increased arousal or perceptual-motor synchronization. Not only the ongoing 
tempo but also the preceding tempo of background sounds is shown to be an 
important factor for behavioral pace change.

著者Contact先の email:


Koshino, H., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M.,Osaka, N.

Coactivation of the default mode network regions and working memory
network regions during task preparation

Scientific Reports,4,5954, 2014



The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a
wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain
imaging studies reported that they also show activation during
various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a
negative correlation between theDMNand the working memory network
(WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions
during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory
task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial
prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions
were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN
regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The
results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected
by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions
due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by
showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task
preparation and deactivation during task execution.

著者Contact先の email:
Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., Osaka, N.

Serial changes of humor comprehension
for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study

Scientific Reports,4,582, 2014


Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized
four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of
humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing
effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In
accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations
changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development
scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was
observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas
during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame
(punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly,
distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between
funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame.
These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation
that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at
the convergence level.

著者Contact先の email:
Akio Honda, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong, Tsuneyuki Abe

Japanese university students' attitudes toward the Fukushima nuclear disaster

Journal of Environmental Psychology



This study investigated Japanese university students' attitudes about the Fukushima nuclear accident and the relations between their attitudes and their opinions about post-disaster reconstruction policies. Gender and geographical differences were also examined. Attitude components were identified, including nuclear power plant efficiency, trust in institutions, and fear of radioactive contamination. Results revealed that men reported higher perceived nuclear power plant efficiency than women did, whereas women showed slightly higher fear of radioactive contamination than men did. Students in Miyagi had higher levels of trust in institutions than students in Tokyo did. Controlling for the effects of gender and geographical differences, fear of radioactive contamination was revealed as a predictor of opinions about post-disaster policies. In contrast, the cognitive components of attitudes did not predict the opinions.

著者Contact先の email:

Authors: Ashitaka, Y., & Shimada, H.
Title:Acquisition process of typing skill using hierarchical materials in the Japanese language.  <http://link.springer.com/journal/13414/onlineFirst/page/1>
Journal(書誌情報):Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics <http://link.springer.com/journal/13414/onlineFirst/page/1>, Online First
doi: DOI: 10.3758/s13414-014-0693-4

In the present study, using a new keyboard layout
with only eight keys, we conducted typing training for un-
skilled typists. In this task, Japanese college students received
training in typing words consisting of a pair of hiragana
characters with four keystrokes, using the alphabetic input
method, while keeping the association between the keys and
typists'finger movements; the task was constructed so that
chunking was readily available. We manipulated the associa-
tion between the hiragana characters and alphabet letters
(hierarchical materials: overlapped and nonoverlapped map-
pings). Our alphabet letter materials corresponded to the reg-
ular order within each hiragana word (within the four letters,
the first and third referred to consonants, and the second and
fourth referred to vowels). Only the interkeystroke intervals
involved in the initiation of typing vowel letters showed an
overlapping effect, which revealed that the effect was mark-
edly large only during the early period of skill development
(the effect for the overlapped mapping being larger than that
for the nonoverlapped mapping), but that it had diminished by
the time of late training. Conversely, the response time and the
third interkeystroke interval, which are both involved in the
latency of typing a consonant letter, did not reveal an overlap-
ped effect, suggesting that chunking might be useful with
hiragana characters rather than hiragana words. These results
are discussed in terms of the fan effect and skill acquisition.
Furthermore, we discuss whether there is a need for further research on
unskilled and skilled Japanese typists.
著者Contact先の email: shimada@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp;
る。先に書いた我々の論文で(Snyder, Ashitaka, Shimada, Ulrich, & Logan,
2014, Attention, Perception, & Phychophysics) では、2ループ (外的ルー
プ、内的ループ) 理論に沿った熟練タイピストの顕在記憶の貧しさをとらえた
たった15%しかいな い。逆にタイピング習得プロセスを調べた。その結果、ロー
Kenri Kodaka and Yuki Ishihara

Crossed hands strengthen and diversify proprioceptive drift in the
self-touch illusion

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 422, 2014



In the self-touch illusion (STI), some can feel that both hands are
touching each other even when they are separated actually. This is achieved
by giving synchronized touches to both hands. Because the STI involves both
hands (an administrating hand and a receptive hand) of a single person, two
types of proprioceptive drifts (PDs) simultaneously occur in such a way
that both hands are attracted to each other. It is known that the PD
distance is generally larger for the administrating hand than for the
receptive hand when the two hands are uncrossed. However, it remains
unclear why such an asymmetrical relationship is observed universally. In
this study, we conducted two types of experiment to induce the STI. The
first experiment involved four conditions combining a factor of "whether
the hands are uncrossed or crossed" and a factor of "whether the
administrating hand is resting or active on the surface," with the
receptive (left) hand located at the body's midline. The result
demonstrated that crossing hands and resting on surface (ROS) induced the
STI. Specifically, crossing hands enhanced the amount of PD distance by
more than two or three times. Moreover, it is interesting that strong PD
with dominance of the receptive hand, which did not appear in the uncrossed
condition, was observed frequently. The second experiment collected seven
"illusion-sensitive" participants from the first experiment, all of whom
had a strong tendency to feel the self-touch, and examined the effect of
the location of the body midline on the PD when hands are crossed with the
administrating hand ROS. The result demonstrated that the dominant hand on
the PD completely differed among participants, but was relatively stable
over the midline position and time in the same person. We also found that a
small number of participants exhibited quite a different pattern of the PD
in the identical posture. On the basis of the results, we analyze in detail
how the dominant hand on the PD is determined in the STI.

著者Contact先の email:


Matsuyoshi, D., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.

Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 394、2014


http:// www.frontiersin.org

Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an
individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual
differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity
was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age.
Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several
objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across
memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects
held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity,
but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of
VWM capacity. n addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was
alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however,
increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings
suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity
induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it can not be
recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the
prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging are
vision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of
distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored.

著者Contact先の email:

Tanabe-Ishibashi, A., Ikeda, T., Osaka, N

Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in
visual working memory of target faces

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 400, 2014


http:/ www.frontiersin.org

Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face
in a changed context, a phenomenon known as
the "butcher-on-the-bus "effect. Whether this context effect is
a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of
memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated
how two types of contextual information associated with target faces
influence the recognition performance of the faces using
meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds.
The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on
face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak
facilitation of face recognition by there-presentation of the same
backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the
facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by
two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic
information available from scene backgrounds and visual array
information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture.
This view suggests visual working memory system can control such
context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts
information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for
recognizing the current target.

著者Contact先の email:

Authors: Suegami, T., Aminihasjibashi, S., and Laeng, B.
Title: Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric 
lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task.
Journal(書誌情報): Cognitive Processing, 15(2), 217-226
doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8
Abstract: The present study aimed to replicate category effects on colour perception and their 
lateralisation to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). Previous evidence for lateralisation of colour category 
effects has been obtained with tasks where a differently coloured target was searched within a display and 
participants reported the lateral location of the target. However, a left/right spatial judgment may yield 
LH-laterality effects per se. Thus, we employed an identification task that does not require a spatial judgment 
and used the same colour set that previously revealed LH-lateralised category effects. The identification 
task was better performed with between-category colours than with within-category task both in terms of 
accuracy and latency, but such category effects were bilateral or RH-lateralised, and no evidence was found 
for LH-laterality effects. The accuracy scores, moreover, indicated that the category effects derived from low 
sensitivities for within-blue !
 colours and did not reflect the effects of categorical structures on colour perception. 
Furthermore, the classic "category effects" were observed in participants' response biases, 
instead of sensitivities. The present results argue against both the LH-lateralised category 
effects on colour perception and the existence of colour category effects per se.
著者Contact先の email: t-suegami@nagasaki-u.ac.jp
Authors:  Masataka Nakayama (中山真孝)and Satoru Saito (齊藤智)
Title: Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position 
effects in repeated single-word production
Journal(書誌情報):Cognition 131(3), 415-430.
An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of
serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of 
sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the tem- poral 
distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically dem- onstrated 
separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that 
phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly. 
This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However, 
such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic 
constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly 
represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly 
from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position 
effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated 
in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned 
principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae 
and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced 
a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word. 
The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent 
morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word 
temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such 
that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide 
empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial 
order control.

著者Contact先の email:

nakayama.masataka.36x@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp (M. Nakayama),

saito.satoru.2z@kyoto-u.ac.jp (S. Saito).

Authors: Takeo Isarida, Tetsuya Sakai, Takayuki Kubota, 
Miho Koga, Yu Katayama, & Toshiko K. Isarida


Title: Odor-context effects in free recall after a short retention interval:
 A new methodology for controlling adaptation

Journal(書誌情報): Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 421-433.


doi: 10.3758/s13421-013-0370-1




Abstract: The present study investigated context effects of incidental odors in
free recall after a short retention-interval (5 min). With a short retention-interval,
 the results are not confounded by extraneous odors, or encounters with
the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention-interval.
A short study-time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by
adaptation to the odor, and a long study-time condition (8 s per item) were used.
 Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a
dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval,
 and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning
paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results.
 In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words
presented one-by-one and received a free-recall test. Two pairs of odors, and
a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics, were selected
from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and
during the test the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within
the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery
from adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item
 condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery from adaptation
method, context effects were found for both the 8-s/item and the 4-s/item conditions.
 The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time.
There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.


著者Contact先の email: isarida@inf.shizuoka.ac.jp

Authors: Sekiguchi T., Nonaka S.(関口貴裕・野中沙織)
Title: The long-term effect of perspective change on the emotional intensity 
of autobiographical memories.
Journal: Cognition & Emotion, 28(2), 375-383
doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.825233
論文URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2013.825233#.UvR-ZvWChaQ

Autobiographical memories can be recalled from either a field (first-person) or 
an observer (third-person) perspective. Previous studies have reported that field-to-observer 
perspective change reduced the emotional intensity of recalled events. In the present study, 
we examined whether this effect has a long duration by employing follow-up measurements. 
The participants were asked to recall the same events repeatedly across three sessions
 (S1, S2, and S3): S2 was conducted about three days after S1, and S3 was conducted about 
four weeks after S2. The results showed a reduction in the emotional intensity of the recalled 
events when the perspective was changed from field to observer at S2. More importantly, this 
reduction in emotional intensity persisted until S3. These effects were not observed under 
observer-to-field perspective change at S2. These results suggest that observer perspective 
taking can cause plastic change in the autobiographical memory system. 
著者Contact先の email: sekiguti@u-gakugei.ac.jp

自伝的記憶をどのような視点(一人称視点 vs 三人称視点)で想起するかが,想起時に感じる
三人称視点で想起し直すと想起時の感情強度が弱くなることが知られていますが(e.g., Berntsen 
& Rubin, 2006),本研究では,こうした感情強度に対する三人称視点想起の影響が同じ出来事を
Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K.., Osaka, M., Osaka, N. 

Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal 
cortex under an ego-blocking frustration

PLoS ONE、9、e86036、2014



Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: 
some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). 
Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive 
and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural 
structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which 
blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. 
In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation 
in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer 
emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed 
greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful 
control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking 
condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual 
differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. 

著者Contact先の email:

Yaoi,K.,Osaka,M.,& Osaka,N.  

Medial prefrontal cortex dissociation between self and others in a referential task: 
An fMRI study based on word traits. 

Journal of Physiology,107 (2013) 517-525


http:/ www.elsevier.com/locate/jphysparis

A number of recent neuroimaging studies using self referential tasks have investigated
 whether self referential processing depends on a unique neural basis that operates 
specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex. However, these studies have provided 
contradictory results despite the use of similar methodologies. We hypothesized that 
these discrepancies are partially related to the task-difficulty that presents dissociations 
reaction times in the self- and other-referential tasks. We therefore measured brain 
activity during self and other referential tasks to determine if such activity can be 
dissociated according to the reaction times (fast versus slow) for the trait words. 
Activation differed across self and other only in the slow word condition. The self 
referential condition with slow reaction time produced greater activation
in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, whereas the other referential condition with slow 
reaction time produced activation of the middle temporal gyrus. Results suggested 
that the task-difficulty might affect whether or not brain activities within MPFC would 
be dissociated between self- and other-referential processing.

著者Contact先の email:
fin.psy@gmail.com (Yaoi)

Takafumi Sasaoka, Hiroaki Mizuhara, and Toshio Inui

Dynamic Parieto-premotor Network for Mental Image Transformation Revealed by Simultaneous 
EEG and fMRI Measurement

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience



Previous studies have suggested that the posterior parietal cortices and premotor areas are 
involved in mental image transformation. However, it remains unknown whether these regions 
really cooperate to realize mental image transformation. In this study, simultaneous EEG and 
fMRI were performed to clarify the spatio-temporal properties of neural networks engaged in
 mental image transformation. We adopted a modified version of the mental clock task used 
by Sack et al. [Sack, A. T., Camprodon, J. A., Pascual-Leone, A., & Goebel, R. The dynamics 
of interhemispheric compensatory processes in mental imagery. Science, 308, 702-704, 2005; 
 Sack, A. T., Sperling, J. M., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Di Salle, F., et al. 
Tracking the mind's image in the brain II: Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals parietal 
asymmetry in visuospatial imagery. Neuron, 35, 195-204, 2002]. In the modified mental clock 
task, participants mentally rotated clock hands from the position initially presented at a learned 
speed for various durations. Subsequently, they matched the position to the visually presented 
clock hands. During mental rotation of the clock hands, we observed significant beta EEG 
suppression with respect to the amount of mental rotation at the right parietal electrode. 
The beta EEG suppression accompanied activity in the bilateral parietal cortices and left 
 premotor cortex, representing a dynamic cortical network for mental image transformation. 
These results suggest that motor signals from the premotor area were utilized for mental image 
transformation in the parietal areas and for updating the imagined clock hands represented in 
 the right posterior parietal cortex.

著者Contact先の email:
Authors: Jihyoung Lee, Kenta Matsumura, Takehiro Yamakoshi, Peter Rolfe, 
Naoto Tanaka, Kyungho Kim, & Ken-ichi Yamakoshi

Title: Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple 
measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards 
applications in ambulatory monitoring

Journal(書誌情報): Physiological Measurement, 34(3), 359-375, 2013

doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/3/359

論文URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/0967-3334/34/3/359

Abstract: Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential 
to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has 
not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger 
using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a 
middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography 
during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young 
and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed 
NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was 
significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom 
of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between 
baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to 
ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 
and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these 
findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are 
comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. 
NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could 
be useful for evaluating daily life stress.

著者Contact先の email: kenta16moon@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp
Authors: Kenta Matsumura & Takehiro Yamakoshi

Title: iPhysioMeter: A new approach for measuring heart rate and normalized 
pulse volume using only a smartphone

Journal(書誌情報): Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1272-1278, 2013

doi: 10.3758/s13428-012-0312-z

論文URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13428-012-0312-z

Abstract: Heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV) are physiological 
indices that have been used in a diversity of psychological studies. However, 
measuring these indices often requires laborious processes. We therefore 
developed a new smartphone program, named iPhysioMeter, that makes it possible 
to measure beat-by-beat HR and ln NPV using only a smartphone. We examined its 
accuracy against conventional laboratory measures. Mental stress tasks were 
used to alter HR and ln NPV in 12 participants. Bland-Altman analyses revealed 
negligible proportional bias for HR and ln NPV or for their change values, 
expressed as ΔHR and Δln NPV. However, a relatively large fixed bias did 
emerge for ln NPV, as well as a small one for Δln NPV, although both were 
within the limits of agreement. These findings suggest that iPhysioMeter can 
yield valid measures of the absolute level of HR and of relative changes in ln 

著者Contact先の email: kenta16moon@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp
Ashitaka, Y., & Shimada, H.

Title:The Cultural Background of the Nonacademic Concept of Psychology 
in Japan: Its Implications for Introductory Education in Psychology
Journal:International Journal of Psychology

doi: 10.1002/ijop.12021


Abstract: No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept 
of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-
Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding 
differs cross-culturally. This study examined
whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced 
Japanese students differed from the concept held
by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to 
as , which includes the ideographic character
, literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that 
psychology will be disproportionately associated with
emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese 
students produced a J-curve, indicating that our
prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed 
in Japan because a majority of people share this
concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only 
preference in students' association of intelligence
or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we 
identified whether students' believe that psychology
encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion 
of the importance of explicitly defining the
non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in 

著者Contact先の email:shimada@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp
なお、オープンアクセス権を取りましたので、まだin pressですが、近々神戸大

白鷗大学教育学部 神戸文朗 Perception, 2013, volume 42, pages 849-872 doi:10.1068/p7497 On the generality of the topological theory of visual shape perception Fumio Kanbe Faculty of Education, Hakuoh University, 1117 Daigyoji, Oyama, Tochigi 323-8585, Japan; e‑mail: kanbe@fc.hakuoh.ac.jp Received 27 March 2013, in revised form 26 August 2013 Abstract. This study used a series of six closely related experiments to examine whether individuals use topological structures to discriminate figures. Strict control was exerted over the selection of stimuli, which were a specific type of randomly generated lined figures that can be classified using isomorphic sets defined by graph theory. Any two figures within an isomorphic set possessed the same topological structure. The experiments described here used a same/different discrimination task with simultaneously presented pairs of figures: (a) identical pairs (Id pairs), in which each pair of figures had the same topological and superficial properties; (b) nonidentical and isomorphic pairs (Iso pairs), in which each pair had the same topological but different superficial properties; and (c) nonidentical and nonisomorphic pairs (Noniso pairs), in which each pair had different topological properties. Within these experiments I varied the conditions related to the intersecting line segments, presentation of points defining each figure, figure complexity, stimulus aspect ratios, and the parity of the total line-segment lengths between the figures in each pair. These variations showed that the latencies for making accurate discriminations were shorter for Noniso pairs than for Iso pairs, suggesting that individuals are sensitive to topology when distinguishing figures. Keywords: topology, isomorphism, graph invariants, same/different task
Morishima, Y.

Allocation of Limited Cognitive Resources During Text Comprehension in a
Second Language

Discourse Processes



For native (L1) comprehenders, lower-level language processes such as
lexical access and parsing are considered to consume few cognitive
resources. In contrast, these processes pose considerable demands for
second-language (L2) comprehenders. Two reading-time experiments employing
inconsistency detection found that English learners did not detect an
inconsistency unless contradicting parts were adjacent. This suggests that
the text memory that L2 comprehenders can access online is an immediately
preceding sentence. This makes a sharp contrast with the finding of
previous research that L1 comprehenders appeared to retrieve an earlier
portion that was several sentences away. A third experiment with probe
verification suggested that L2 participants did not reactivate prior text
information when reading the contradicting sentence following an
intervening sentence. These results provide evidence for the limited
resource allocation for discourse-level processes in L2 comprehension. The
results are discussed based on the two-stage model that consists of the
resonance and integration processes.

著者Contact先の email:
Authors:Kristy M. Snyder & Yuki Ashitaka & Hiroyuki Shimada &
Jana E. Ulrich & Gordon D. Logan
Title:What skilled typists don't know about the QWERTY keyboard
Attention, Perception, & Pscyhophysics
Journal(書誌情報):Attention, Perception, & Pscyhophysics
doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0548-4 online first
Abstract:We conducted four experiments to investigate
skilled typists' explicit knowledge of the locations of keys
on the QWERTY keyboard, with three procedures: free recall
(Exp.1), cued recall (Exp.2), and recognition (Exp.3). We
found that skilled typists' explicit knowledge of key locations
is incomplete and inaccurate. The findings are consistent with
theories of skilled performance and automaticity that associate
implicit knowledge with skilled performance and explicit
knowledge with novice performance. In Experiment4, we
investigated whether novice typists acquire more complete
explicit knowledge of key locations when learning to touchtype.
We had skilled QWERTY typists complete a Dvorak
touch-typing tutorial. We then tested their explicit knowledge
of the Dvorak andQWERTY key locations with the free recall
task.We found no difference in explicit knowledge of the two
keyboards, suggesting that typists know little about key locations
on the keyboard, whether they are exposed to the keyboard
for 2 h or 12 years.
著者Contact先の email:shimada@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp
研究されています。この論文はVanderbilt大学のG. D. Loganと行った研究に
(DVORAKキー) を学習させることによって調べましたた。その結果、顕在的記

Authors: Ryoma Yamada, &amp; Yukio Itsukushima
Title: The effects of schema on recognition memories and subjective experiences for actions and objects
Journal(書誌情報): Japanese Psychological Research, Volume 55, Issue 4,
pages 366-377, October 2013
doi: 10.1111/jpr.12016

We examined how the schema affects recognition memories and subjective experiences for actions and objects. First, participants watched consecutive slides that described a man in the kitchen. In the slides, the man performed schema-consistent actions and schema-inconsistent actions, and schema-consistent objects and schema-inconsistent objects were left in the kitchen space. After watching the slides, participants completed a recognition test, a remember/know test, and a Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire. For objects, the discrimination between targets and distracters was more accurate for schema-inconsistent items than for schema-consistent items, owing to perceptual, thought, and emotional recollections for schema-inconsistent object targets. For actions, schema-consistent targets were more frequently recognized than schema-inconsistent targets, with more remember judgments based on perceptual and contextual recollections. While
 item-specific information of schema-inconsistent targets could be elaborated for objects, the perceptual details and the contextual relationship of schema-consistent targets could be elaborated for actions. We also found less false recognitions for schema-consistent action distracters than for schema-consistent object distracters. The retrieval of the perceptual details of schema-consistent action targets could prevent false recognitions for schema-consistent action distracters.
著者Contact先の email: ryom_cc@yahoo.co.jp

日本語によるコメント: 日常的な場所において,スキーマが再認記憶と想起意識に及ぼす影響を,行為と物品で比較検討した。行為と物品ともに,その場所のスキーマに一致するターゲットと一致しないターゲットを画像で提示した。結果,物品ではスキーマ不一致ターゲットの方が再認されたのに対し,行為ではスキーマ一致ターゲットの方が再認された。どのような場面かを把握するために,スキーマ不一致行為ターゲットの精緻化が抑制されたと考えられる。スキーマ一致妨害刺激に対する虚再認が物品よりも行為で生じなかったのも,スキーマ一致行為ターゲットが精緻化されたために虚再認が生じにくかったことが原因と考えられる。


1)  <IJPaper@cogpsy.jp> に投稿された国際ジャーナル掲載情報は


2) メーリングリストでの広報は月に1回とし,



Osaka,M. Yaoi,K., Minamoto,T.,& Osaka,N.

When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance?

Scientific Reports



The present study investigated when emotion modulates working memory
from the perspective of neural activation. Using fMRI, we measured brain
activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of a reading span test
(RST) that used emotional contexts. The emotional RST required
participants to read sentences that elicited negative, neural or
positive emotional states while they were memorizing target words from
the sentences. Compared with the neutral RST, the negative RST activated
the right amygdala during the reading phase. Significant activation was
also found in the parahippocampal gyrus, albeit only after activation of
the amygdala became comparable to that in the neutral RST. In contrast,
the positive RST activated the substantia nigra during the reading phase
relative to the neutral RST. These findings suggest that negative and
positive emotions modulate working memory through distinctive neural
circuits. We also discuss possible relationships between emotional
modulation and working memory capacity.

著者Contact先の email:
Osaka, N.,Ikeda, T.,& Osaka, M.

Effect of intentional bias on agency attribution of animated motion: An
event-related fMRI study

PLoS One



Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted
as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in
intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such
intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional
bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring
associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic
resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and
twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to
participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency
attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement
increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal
sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus
(IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior
parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the
high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle
frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the
low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent
attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to
the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing
information about social interaction.

著者Contact先の email:
Tsubomi,H., Ikeda, T., & Osaka, N.

Primary visual cortex scales individual's perceived brightness with
power function: Inner psychophysics with fMRI.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance



Perceived brightness is well described by Stevens' power function (S. S.
Stevens, 1957, On the psychophysical law, Psychological Review, Vol. 64,
pp. 153-181), with a power exponent of .33 (the cubic-root function of
luminance). The power exponent actually varies across individuals, yet
little is known about neural substrates underlying this individual
difference. The present functional MRI study investigated how neural
activation levels in the visual cortex serve to scale individual's
subjective brightness. Participants rated brightness of a disk ranging
from 1- to 100-cd/m(2) luminance. Subjective brightness ratings showed
an almost perfect log-linear dependence on luminance intensity, with the
power exponent averaging .32. The fMRI results showed that activity in
the bilateral primary visual cortex along with the calcarine sulcus
(also known as Brodmann's area 17 and VI) increased log-linearly with
physical luminance, showing average power exponents of .32 and .27 in
the left and right hemispheres, respectively. There were substantial
individual variations in the power function exponents for both
subjective brightness ratings (.14 to .46) and primary visual cortex
activation (.12 to .55). An important finding was that 2 power exponents
were closely correlated (r = .62). Subjective brightness ratings and
primary visual cortex activation were both better correlated with
stimulus luminance than stimulus contrast (at the border of the
stimulus). These results suggest that primary visual cortex activation
can scale individual's subjective brightness in accordance with Stevens'
power law.

著者Contact先の email:
Matsuyoshi, D., Ikeda, T., Sawamoto, N., Kakigi, R., Fukuyama, H., &
Osaka, N.

Differential roles for parietal and occipital cortices in visual working




Visual working memory (VWM) is known as a highly capacity-limited
cognitive system that can hold 3-4 items. Recent studies have
demonstrated that activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and
occipital cortices correlates with the number of representations held in
VWM. However, differences among those regions are poorly understood,
particularly when task-irrelevant items are to be ignored. The present
fMRI-based study investigated whether memory load-sensitive regions such
as the IPS and occipital cortices respond differently to task-relevant
information. Using a change detection task in which participants are
required to remember pre-specified targets, here we show that while the
IPS exhibited comparable responses to both targets and distractors, the
dorsal occipital cortex manifested significantly weaker responses to an
array containing distractors than to an array containing only targets,
despite that the number of objects presented was the same for the two
arrays. These results suggest that parietal and occipital cortices
engage differently in distractor processing and that the dorsal
occipital, rather than parietal, activity appears to reflect output of
stimulus filtering and selection based on behavioral relevance.

著者Contact先の email:
Azuma, M., Ikeda, T., Minamoto, T., Osaka, M., Osaka, N.

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control
systems under Reading Span Test

Journal of Eye Movement Research


www.jemr.org/online 5/3/1

Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented
behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the
relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control
during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due
to a methodological issue including the predictability of target
location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span
test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so
that more efficient attentional control is required, and investigated
how working memory capacity contributes to eye movement control during
reading span test. Results based on total fixation time revealed that
highworking memory performers efficiently control or shift their
attention under high memory load.

著者Contact先の email:
Osaka,M.,Yaoi,K., Otsuka, Y., Katsuhara, M., & Osaka, N

Practice on conflict tasks promotes executive function of working memory
in the elderly.

Behavioural Brain Research



Effects of practice on a conflict task in elderly individuals are
examined with a focus on its impact on executive function in working
memory. During a short-term practice period, healthy elderly
participants practiced switching attention using a Stroop task that
involved a conflict between a task relevant stimulus and an irrelevant
stimulus. To explore neural substrates underlying practice effects, two
working memory tasks were used: a focus reading span test (F-RST) and a
non-focus reading span test (NF-RST); the NF-RST test demanded greater
switching attention due to a conflict between the relevant task stimulus
and an irrelevant task stimulus, thus requiring an attention switch from
the latter to the former. Following the Stroop task practice, fMRI data
showed that participants who had engaged in practice had significant
increases in activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left
inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
(DLPFC) and the precuneus regions during the NF-RST. By contrast, a
control group, which did not practice, showed no significant increases
in these regions. Results suggest that practice on conflict tasks in
elderly individuals activated regions related to conflict perceiving and
attention switching regions as well as attention-maintenance regions
thereby improving performance on tasks requiring a high degree of
attention control of working memory.

著者Contact先の email:
Osaka, M., Otsuka, Y., & Osaka, N.

Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in the elderly:
An fMRI study.

Frontiers of Human Neuroscience



The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory
performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During
verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was
introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the
control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working
memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To
explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI
was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory
task performance before and after an attention training period. In a
comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed
increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to
the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased
activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and
right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of
a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals
in the maintenance of information in working memory.

著者Contact先の email:
Minamoto, T., Osaka, M., Engle, R. W., & Osaka, N.

Incidental encoding of goal-irrelevant information is associated with
insufficient engagement of the dorsal frontal cortex and the inferior
parietal cortex.

Brain Research



Previous studies have shown that goal-irrelevant distractors are
incidentally encoded into long-term memory. Neuroimaging studies have
suggested that the medial temporal and visual association regions are
involved in incidental encoding of goal-irrelevant information. However,
few studies have investigated prefrontal/parietal influence during the
incidental encoding. The present study performed whole brain analysis to
identify the brain regions involved in the incidental encoding of
goal-irrelevant information. A face working memory (WM) task was
administered with insertion of face distractors during the delay period.
Following the WM task, a surprise recognition task was given in an MRI
scanner. Recognition rate of distractors was higher than that of novel
fillers. Recognition time was also faster in distractors than in novel
fillers. Neuroimaging results showed less activation to distractors
subsequently remembered than those forgotten in the middle and superior
frontal regions and the lateral inferior parietal lobe including the
angular gyrus and the temporoparietal regions. However, the left
anterior hippocampus and the right fusiform gyrus showed greater
activation to distractors subsequently remembered. Those findings
suggest that insufficient engagement of the dorsal frontal cortex which
regulates attentional control and the inferior parietal lobe which
functions to reorient attention may allow goal-irrelevant information
access to working memory and to be encoded into long-term memory.

著者Contact先の email:
Osaka, N., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., & Osaka, M.

Neural correlates of delicate sadness: An fMRI study based on the
neuroaesthetics of Noh-masks




Although the role of the amygdala in processing facial expressions of
fear is well established, its role in the processing of other emotions,
such as sadness, remains unclear. We hypothesized that the amygdala
would respond to a negative emotion such as sadness, when sadness was
represented by a theatrical mask. In the traditional Japanese Noh
theater, performers use masks to indicate many of the mental states of
the characters they portray. Here, we report a functional MRI study, in
which participants' brains were scanned while viewing Noh masks, whose
faces appeared delicately sad. Among seventy standard Noh masks
previously rated by the individual participants, we chose six top-rated
sad masks and six neutral masks to study the neural correlates of such
delicate sadness. Results based on a region of interest analysis
indicated the activation of the right amygdala while viewing sad masks.
We suggest the fact that such delicate sad masks could activate the
amygdala, and it could possibly be because of an underlying similarity
to emotions such as fear and disgust.

著者Contact先の email:
Tsubomi, H., Ikeda, T., Hanakawa, T., Hirose, N., Fukuyama, H., & Osaka, N.

Dissociable neural activations of conscious visibility and attention

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience



Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual consciousness of
objects is reflected by the activation in the lateral occipital cortex
as well as in the frontal and parietal cortex. However, most previous
studies used behavioral paradigms in which attention raised or enhanced
visual consciousness (visibility or recognition performance). This
co-occurrence made it difficult to reveal whether an observed cortical
activation is related to visual consciousness or attention. The present
fMRI study investigated the dissociability of neural activations
underlying these two cognitive phenomena. Toward this aim, we used a
visual backward masking paradigm in which directing attention could
either enhance or reduce the object visibility. The participantsʼ task
was to report the level of subjective visibility for a briefly presented
target object. The target was presented in the center with four
flankers, which was followed by the same number of masks. Behavioral
results showed that attention to the flankers enhanced the target
visibility, whereas attention to the masks attenuated it. The fMRI
results showed that the occipito-temporal sulcus increased activation in
the attend flankers condition compared with the attend masks condition,
and occipito-temporal sulcus activation levels positively correlated
with the target visibility in both attentional conditions. On the other
hand, the inferior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal sulcus increased
activation in both the attend flankers and attend masks compared with an
attend neither condition, and these activation levels were independent
of target visibility. Taken together, present results showed a clear
dissociation in neural activities between conscious visibility and

著者Contact先の email:
Authors:Shibata, Hiroshi; Inui, Toshio; Ogawa, Kenji

Title:Role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in recognizing hand
actions performed in social contexts: a functional MRI study

Journal(書誌情報):Neuroreport. 24(14):803-807, 2013



Abstract:We investigated the role of the prefrontal areas in recognizing
hand actions performed in social contexts. We used video clips depicting
the interaction between two individuals: one person (requester)
requested the other person to pass one of two objects. The other person
(responder) then passed the object that was congruent to the request in
the congruent condition or incongruent in the incongruent condition.
Both requester and responder appeared on screen in the two-person
condition and only the responder appeared in the one-person condition.
Participants were required to observe the clips and to judge whether the
responder's actions were congruent or incongruent. Functional MRI showed
the incongruency effect in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the
brain areas including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
showed the interaction effect; the magnitude of activation in the
incongruent condition was significantly higher than that in the congruent !
 condition, but this difference was found only in the two-person
condition. These results suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
play an important role in the detection of incongruency between the
requester's request and the responder's action depending on social contexts.

著者Contact先の email:hshibata@rehab.tbgu.ac.jp
Masasi Hattori, Steven A. Sloman, & Ryo Orita

Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(4), 790-797



Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems
(the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the
participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a
subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did
not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was
affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced
to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2.
A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them
were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the
problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of
subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem
solving are discussed.

著者Contact先の email:

Authors: Ryoma Yamada, & Yukio Itsukushima
Title: The schema provokes a disparity of false recollection between
actions and objects in an everyday scene
Journal(書誌情報): Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Volume 54, Issue 4,
pages 276-282, August 2013
doi: 10.1111/sjop.12051
論文URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sjop.12051/abstract
We explored the effect of the schema on recognition memories and
subjective experiences for actions and objects in an everyday scene. At
first, participants watched slides of a man cooking in a kitchen. The
man performed schema-consistent actions, and schema-consistent objects
were left. After watching the slides, participants completed a
recognition test, a remember/know test, and a
Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire. We confirmed three
main results. First, participants made more false recognitions for
schema-consistent distracters than for schema-inconsistent distracters
with more "remember" judgments accompanied by perceptual, thought, and
contextual details, and with more "know" judgments. Second, participants
made more false recognitions for schema-consistent object distracters
than for schema-consistent action distracters. Third, participants more
frequently recognized schema-consistent action targets than
schema-consistent object targets with more "remember" judgments. Both
action memory and object memory were reconstructed under the schema,
provoking false recognitions for schema-consistent distracters. However,
the memories of schema-consistent action targets were so recollective
that they could prevent false recognitions for schema-consistent action
著者Contact先の email: ryom_cc@yahoo.co.jp
日本語によるコメント: 日常的な場面のスキーマが行為と物品の再認記憶と想起
Shinohara, K., Naito, H., Matsui, Y. & Hikono, M.

The effects of"finger pointing and calling"on cognitive control
processes in the task-switching paradigm

International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics



"Finger pointing and calling (FPC)," also known simply as "
pointing and calling," is an operational procedure to prevent
human error and has been used extensively in Japanese industry.
Although the effectiveness of FPC has been widely recognized,
cognitive processes underlying FPC have not been thoroughly
investigated. The current study focused on the effect of FPC
on cognitive control processes responsible for the supervisory
attentional system including the retrieval and activation of
working memory. In the experiment, a task-switching paradigm
was adopted. Twenty participants had to make a binary decision
about two presented digits according to one of three task rules.
Task rules to be applied were presented by a cue immediately
before presenting the digits. Participants took part in a mixed
rule session in which they had to switch the task rule from
one trial to the next, and a single rule session in which a
specific rule was applied throughout the session. FPC to the
cue was incorporated. Results showed that in the mixed rule
condition, the reaction was significantly faster when FPC was
performed compared to when FPC was not performed. Even though
 the reaction became faster in the mixed rule condition with
 FPC, the accuracy of response was not affected. However,
the preparation time, which was required for retrieving and
activating the rule used for the current trial, was affected
by performing FPC. In addition, the level of subjective mental
workload did not change by applying FPC, which suggests that
FPC was nonintrusive to the main task. These findings suggest
that FPC facilitates the cognitive control processes of the
supervisory attentional system, and that FPC was especially
useful for the signal that requested operators to select
something from memorized alternatives according to the content
of the signal.

著者Contact先の email:
Oi, M., Saito, H., Li, Z., & Zhao, W.

Co-speech gesture production in an animation-narration task by bilinguals:
A near-infrared spectroscopy study

Brain & Language



To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we
measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task
using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to
watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents
in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2), respectively. The
participants showed significantly more gestures in L2 than in L1. The
number of gestures lowered at the ending part of the narration in L1,
but not in L2. Analyses of concentration changes of oxygenated
hemoglobin revealed that activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus
(IFG) significantly increased during gesture production, while
activation of the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)
significantly decreased in line with an increase in the left IFG. These
brain activation patterns suggest that the left IFG is involved in the
gesture production, and the left pSTS is modulated by the speech load.


著者Contact先の email:
Liu, T., Saito, H., Oi, M., & Pelowski, M.

Appraisal of a copresent observer as supportive activates the left
inferior parietal lobule: A near-infrared spectroscopy study using a
driving video game




The role of the presence of others in a social context has been debated
widely. Although the importance of mutual cognitive functions between
performer and observer is generally accepted, little is known about the
neural correlates of paired performers and observers themselves. In this
near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study we measured the activation in
the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) when driver-observer pairs
of participants performed a driving video game task. The performer's
task was to drive from start to goal using a default route map, while
their partner observed the performance. According to the performer's
subjective appraisal of the copresent observer obtained after the
driving task, the pairs were divided into three groups: supportive,
nonsupportive, and neutral. The driving time, error, and tension score
did not show significant differences between the three groups. However,
NIRS data of performers in the supportive group showed significantly
higher activation in the left IPL than those in the nonsupportive group,
but not in the right IPL. NIRS data of observers in the concerned two
groups did not show significant differences bilaterally in IPL. These
results suggest that the left IPL distinctively responds according to a
performer's cognitive appraisal of a copresent observer.

従って,実験参加者のペアは,3群に分割された: 支援,非支援,中立群。遂行

著者Contact先の email:
Suegami, T. and Laeng, B.

A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing
spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format.

Brain and Cognition



It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and
RH) respectively process qualita- tive or ''categorical'' spatial
relations and metric or ''coordinate'' spatial relations. However,
categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two
types: semantically-coded and visuospatially- coded categorical
information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing
semantic-categor- ical information is observed in a non-verbal format,
and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-cate- gorical processing
are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and
positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and
visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested
performance with the divided visual field method. In the
semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged
if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target
was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting
a LH's preference for processing seman- tic-categorical information in
a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in
which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical
information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left
visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the
processing of seman- tic-categorical information is lateralized in LH,
and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical

著者Contact先の email:
Authors: Sachio Otsuka, Megumi Nishiyama, Fumitaka Nakahara, & Jun
Kawaguchi(大塚幸生・西山めぐみ・中原史隆・川口 潤)
Title: Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic
information of objects
Journal(書誌情報): Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, and Cognition, 39(1), 196-207, 2013.
doi: 10.1037/a0028645
論文URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xlm/39/1/196.pdf
Abstract: Five experiments examined what is learned based on the
perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical
learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a
sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects.
In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically
related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or
second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In
Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment
1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The
results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was
greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC
and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance
of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in
which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we
showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL
with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results
of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These
results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and
semantic information of objects in VSL.
著者Contact先の email: otsuka.sachio.65w@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Authors: Shin-ichi ASakawa
Title: Re-Evaluation of Attractor Neural Network Model to Explain Double
Dissociation in Semantic Memory Disorder
Journal(書誌情報): Psychology, ISSN Print: 2152-7180, ISSN Online:
doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A053
論文URL: http://www.Scirp.org/journal/psych

Structure of semantic memory was investigated in the way of neural
network simulations in detail. In the literature, it is well-known that
brain damaged patients often showed category specific disorder in
various cognitive neuropsychological tasks like picture naming,
categorisation, identification tasks and so on. In order to describe
semantic memory disorder of brain damaged patients, the attractor neural
network model originally proposed Hinton and Shallice (1991) was
employed and was tried to re-evaluate the model performance. Especially,
in order to answer the question about organization of semantic memory,
how our semantic memories are organized, computer simulations were
conducted. After the model learned data set (Tyler, Moss,
Durrant-Peatfield, & Levy, 2000), units in hidden and cleanup layers
were removed and observed its performances. The results showed category
specificity. This model could also explain the double dissociation
phenomena. In spite of the simplicity of its architecture, the attractor
neural network might be considered to mimic human behavior in the
meaning of semantic memory organization and its disorder. Although this
model could explain various phenomenon in cognitive neuropsychology, it
might become obvious that this model had one limitation to explain human
behavior. As far as investigation in this study, asymmetry in category
specificity between animate and inanimate objects might not be explained
on this model without any additional assumptions. Therefore, further
studies must be required to improve our understanding for semantic
memory organisation.
著者Contact先の email: asakawa@ieee.rog

Author: Yohtaro Takano (University of Tokyo)

Title: Japanese Culture Explored Through Experimental Design

  A. Kurylo (Ed.)
  Inter/Cultural Communication.
  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013, pp. 405-412.

ISBN: 978-1-4129-8693-9

 [この論文は、本の1章なので Abstract がありません。概要を日本語で記し
差異は全く認められないことがわかりました(Takano & Osaka, 1999)。

著者Contact先の email: takano@L.u-tokyo.ac.jp

 この論文は、Takano & Sogon (2008) を教科書向けに短縮し、書き直したもの
です。Takano & Sogon (2008) は、高野(2008)でも紹介しました。この論文の
一節は、パーソナリティ心理学の教科書 (Funder, 2012) に引用されています。

Takano, Y. & Osaka, E. (1999). An unsupported common view: Comparing
Japan and the U.S. on individualism/collectivism.  Asian Journal of
Social Psychology, 2, 311-341.

高野陽太郎 (2008). 『「集団主義」という錯覚』 新曜社

Takano, Y. & Sogon, S. (2008). Are Japanese more collectivistic than
Americans?: Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group
effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 237-250.

Funder, D. C. (2012). The Personality Puzzle (6th ed). Norton.
Authors: Tadamasa Narimoto, naomi Matsuura, Tomohiro Takezawa, Yoshinori
Mitsuhashi, and Michio Hiratani

Title: Spatial short-term memory in children with visuospatial learning
disabilities: Impairment in encoding spatial configuration (2013) Vol.
174 (1), 73-87

Journal: Journal of Genetic Psychology
(5-Year Impact Factor: 1.098)
(Aims & scope: The Journal of Genetic Psychology is devoted to research
and theory in developmental psychology across the life span. We accept
submissions in the areas of educational and cross-cultural comparative
psychology if they are developmental in nature. The major thrust of the
journal is empirical research and the exposition and criticism of theory

doi: 10.1080/00221325.2011.641040

論文URL:  http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/vgnt20/174/1

The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory
exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a
problem in the   encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal
learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them
to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random
positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item
was changed or all items including the target were in the same position.
The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding
and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children
with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children
without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with
the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have
difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and
that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-
term memory.

著者Contact先のemail: tanarimo@ed.tokyo-fukushi.ac.jp
Tatsushi Fukaya

Explanation generation, not explanation expectancy, improves
metacomprehension accuracy

Metacognition and Learning
2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1-18



The ability to monitor the status of one's own understanding is
important to accomplish academic tasks proficiently. Previous studies
have shown that comprehension monitoring (metacomprehension accuracy)
is generally poor, but improves when readers engage in activities that
access valid cues reflecting their situation model (activities such as
concept mapping or self-explaining). However, the question still
remains as to which process, encoding or retrieving, causes the
improvement of metacomprehension accuracy, and the findings of
previous research on this matter have been inconsistent. This study
examined whether college students' metacomprehension accuracy improves
when they expect, at the time of reading, that they will explain the
content later (active encoding) or when they actually generate an
explanation (encoding plus active retrieving). In the experiments,
college students read five texts. During reading, some students
expected that they would generate explanations but did not actually
generate them. In contrast, some students actually generated an
explanation of the text after reading. All students then rated their
comprehension of each text. Finally, they completed tests on the
materials. Results of both studies revealed that metacomprehension
accuracy, operationalized as the association between comprehension
ratings and test performance, was greater for the group that actually
generated explanations than for the expectancy or control groups.

著者Contact先の email:

Authors: Motoyasu Honma, Nobutaka Endo, Yoshihisa Osada, Yoshiharu Kim,
Kenichi Kuriyama
Title: Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake
Journal(書誌情報): Scientific Reports
doi: 10.1038/srep00749
Abstract: Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of
aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large
area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We
conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and
psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in
individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were
rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the
aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation.
Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have
arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual
vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to
aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on
equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute
to risk management of psychological and physical health after major
earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical
approach to disaster care after such events.
著者Contact先の email: mhonma@ncnp.go.jp

日本語要約: 2011年3月11日に発生した東北沖地震の約4カ月後に,余震を多く経

日本語によるコメント: 身体の平衡維持(バランス)機能は,主に内耳の前庭器
Author: Motoyasu Honma
Title: Hyper-volume of eye-contact perception and social anxiety traits
Journal(書誌情報): Consciousness and Cognition
doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.12.002.
論文URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381001200236X
Abstract: Eye-contact facilitates effective interpersonal exchange
during social interactions, but can be a considerable source of anxiety
for individuals with social phobia. However, the relationship between
the fundamental spatial range of eye-contact perception and psychiatric
traits is, to date, unknown. In this study, I analyzed the eye-contact
spatial response bias and the associated pupil response, and how they
relate to traits of social interaction disorders. In a face-to-face
situation, 21 pairs of subjects were randomly assigned to be either
viewers or perceivers. The viewer was instructed to gaze either at the
perceiver's eyes, or at a predetermined point, and the perceiver was
asked to indicate whether eye-contact had been established or not. I
found that the perceptual volume is much larger than the actual volume
of eye-contact, and that the subjective judgment of eye-contact elicited
greater pupil dilation in the perceiver. Furthermore, the relationship
between behavioral performance and social anxiety traits was identified.
These findings provide new indications that internal traits related to
lower social anxiety are potentially related to a restriction of spatial
response bias for eye-contact.
著者Contact先の email: mhonma@ncnp.go.jp

日本語要約: 対面する二者におけるアイコンタクト(視線一致)の知覚体積およ

日本語によるコメント: ながらく眼球運動測定に関わってきたのですが,高次な
Authors: ISARIDA Takeo, ISARIDA Toshiko K., & SAKAI Tetsuya
Title: Effects of study time and meaningfulness on environmental
Journal: Memory & Cognition, Vol 40, No. 8, 1225-1235, 2012.
doi: 10.3758/s13421-012-0234-0
論文URL: http://link.springer.com/journal/13421/40/8/page/1
Abstract: In two experiments, we examined whether the
size of place-context-dependent recognition decreased with
study time and with the meaningfulness of the to-beremembered
materials. A group of 80 undergraduates intentionally
studied a list of words in a short (1.5 s per item) or a
long (4.0 s per item) study-time condition (Exp. 1). Another
40 undergraduates studied lists consisting of words and
nonwords in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). After
a short retention interval, recognition for the targets was
tested in the same or in a different context. Context was
manipulated by means of the combination of place, subsidiary
task, and experimenter. Significant context-dependent
recognition discrimination was found for words in the shortstudy-
time condition (Exp. 1), but not in the long-study-time
condition (Exps. 1 and 2). Significant effects were found as
well for nonwords, even in the long-study-time condition
(Exp. 2). These results are explained well by an outshining
account: that is, by principles of outshining and encoding
著者Contact先の email: isarida@inf.shizuoka.ac.jp
日本語によるコメント 場所を操作した環境的文脈依存効果は,再生ではかなり
Authors: Iwabuchi Toshiki, Inui Toshio, Ogawa Kenji
Title: A functional MRI study of a picture-sentence verification task:
evidence of attention shift to the grammatical subject
Journal(書誌情報): Neuroreport, 24(6):298-302.
doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32835f8826
Abstract: Mapping the meaning of a sentence onto visual entities is a
fundamental process of daily language use, but it is unclear how
attention in the visual context influences sentence comprehension.
Aiming to examine this problem, we conducted a picture-sentence matching
experiment with scanning using functional MRI. In the experiment, a
moving picture describing an event with two colored objects was
presented on a screen. A visual cue was flashed at the position of an
object's appearance just before the event presentation, and participants
were instructed to pay attention to the visually cued object in the
picture. They were then required to read a simple Japanese sentence and
to verify whether it correctly described the previous event. To examine
the effects of visual cueing, we defined two conditions on the basis of
the relationship between the visually cued object in an event and the
grammatical subject of the subsequent sentence. When comparing the
conditions in which the visually cued object was incongruent with the
grammatical subject to the congruent conditions, participants showed a
lower hit rate, and the right frontal eye field, which is known to be
the region related to attention shift, was more activated. These
findings suggest that the attention was initially allocated to an object
encoded as the grammatical subject in the process of linking the content
of a sentence with a visual event. Therefore, the attention was shifted
from the cued object to the other object under the conditions discussed
著者Contact先の email: iwabuchi@cog.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T.
Title: How vision affects kinematic properties of pantomimed prehension
Journal(書誌情報): Frontiers in Psychology
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00044
When performing the reach-to-grasp movement, fingers open wider than the
size of a target object and then stop opening. The recorded peak grip
aperture (PGA) is significantly larger when this action is performed
without vision during the movement than with vision, presumably due to
an error margin that is retained in order to avoid collision with the
object. People can also pretend this action based on an internal target
representation (i.e., pantomimed prehension), and previous studies have
shown that kinematic differences exist between natural and pantomimed
prehension. These differences are regarded as a reflection of variations
in information processing in the brain through the dorsal and ventral
streams. Pantomimed action is thought to be mediated by the ventral
stream. This implies that visual information during the movement, which
is essential to the dorsal stream, has little effect on the kinematic
properties of pantomimed prehension. We investigated whether an online
  view of the external world affects pantomimed grasping, and more
specifically, whether the dorsal stream is involved in its execution.
Participants gazed at a target object and were then subjected to a 3-s
visual occlusion, during which time the experimenter removed the object.
The participants were then required to pretend to make a reach-to-grasp
action toward the location where the object had been presented. Two
visual conditions (full vision and no vision) were imposed during the
pantomimed action by manipulating shutter goggles. The PGA showed
significant differences between the two visual conditions, whereas no
significant difference was noted for terminal grip aperture, which was
recorded at the movement end. This suggests the involvement of the
dorsal stream in pantomimed action and implies that pantomimed
prehension is a good probe for revealing the mechanism of interaction
between the ventral and dorsal streams, which is also linked to embodied
著者Contact先の email: takao.fukui@inserm.fr
Authors: Fukui T, Inui T.
Title: Utilization of visual feedback of the hand according to target
view availability for online control of prehension movements
Journal(書誌情報): Human Movement Science
doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2013.03.004
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of online vision of a
target object and the participant's moving hand in the early phase of
reach-to-grasp movements. We designed an experiment that separately
manipulated the visibility of a moving hand and the target object by
using two liquid crystal shutter plates placed in the same horizontal
plane (25 cm above the experimental table). When the view of the target
was available immediately after movement onset, the effect of the view
of the hand in the early phase of movement was very limited. The effect
of the view of the hand emerged when the view of the target in the early
phase of movement was not available. This was even the case for the
condition where the temporal range of non-availability of the view of
the target after movement initiation was 150 ms. Therefore, online
vision (both the view of the target and of the hand) for controlling
grasping was utilized in a flexible fashion that depended on the visual e
著者Contact先の email: takao.fukui@inserm.fr
Ogawa K, Imamizu H.
Human sensorimotor cortex represents conflicting visuomotor mappings.
The Journal of Neuroscience
Behavioral studies have shown that humans can adapt to conflicting
sensorimotor mappings that cause interference after intensive
training. While previous research works indicate the involvement of
distinct brain regions for different types of motor learning (e.g.,
kinematics vs dynamics), the neural mechanisms underlying joint
adaptation to conflicting mappings within the same type of
perturbation (e.g., different angles of visuomotor rotation) remain
unclear. To reveal the neural substrates that represent multiple
sensorimotor mappings, we examined whether different mappings could be
classified with multivoxel activity patterns of functional magnetic
resonance imaging data. Participants simultaneously adapted to
opposite rotational perturbations (+90° and - 90°) during visuomotor
tracking. To dissociate differences in movement kinematics with
rotation types, we used two distinct patterns of target motion and
tested generalization of the classifier between different combinations
of rotation and motion types. Results showed that the rotation types
were classified significantly above chance using activities in the
primary sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, despite
no significant difference in averaged signal amplitudes within the
region. In contrast, low-level sensorimotor components, including
tracking error and movement speed, were best classified using
activities of the early visual cortex. Our results reveal that the
sensorimotor cortex represents different visuomotor mappings, which
permits joint learning and switching between conflicting sensorimotor
著者Contact先の email: k.ogawa@atr.jp




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